South Africa Survey 2012

Demographics

The Demographics chapter shows who lives in South Africa, how old they are, where they live, and what their home language is. The data, in 95 pages of detail, is broken down by race, sex, age, and location, going back as far as 1911 and looking ahead to 2040.

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Internal migration and urban growth trends are featured, showing which provinces are gaining and which are losing people. Seven pages are devoted to the impact of HIV/AIDS on population trends. A further seven pages are dedicated to families, including child-headed households, orphans, the presence or absence of fathers, single parents, and teenage pregnancy. Human Development Index trends are tracked back to 1980. The chapter concludes with a section on emigrants, residence permit holders, refugees and asylum seekers, as well as deportations.

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POPULATION PROFILE
2
Breakdown by race and age, 1911–2040
2
Population by race, 1911–2025
2
Population by race, 1911 and 2011
2
Projected population, 2010–40
3
Projected population by age, 2010–40
4
Projected population by age, 2010 and 2040
4
Population estimates for 2012 and the 2011 census
4
Breakdown by race, 1992–2025
5
Population by race, 1992–2025
5
Breakdown by race, sex, and age, 2011
6
Population by race, sex, and age, 2011
6
Breakdown by race and sex
10
Male/female population distribution by race, 2011
10
Breakdown by race and age
10
Age profile by race, 2011 (actual numbers)
10
Age profile by race, 2011 (proportions)
10
Growth rate and forecasts by sex and race, 2001–40
11
Estimated annual population growth rates by sex, 2001–11
11
Annual population growth rate, 2010–40
11
Population by race, 2010 and 2025
12
Population by race, 2010–40
12
Population by race, 2010 and 2040
13
Relative population by sex, 2010–40
13
Average annual population growth, selected countries,
 
 1990–95 and 2010–15
14
Average annual population growth, emerging markets,
 
 1990–95 and 2010–15
15
Average annual population growth, selected African countries,
 
 1990–95 and 2010–15
16
Breakdown by province
17
Population by province, 2011
17
Population growth rates and possible contributing factors
17
Average annual population growth rates by province,
 
 2001–21
19
Breakdown by race, sex, and province
20
Population by race and province, 2012 and
 
 2015 (actual numbers)
20
Population by race and province, 2012 and
 
 2015 (proportions)
21
Population by sex and province, 2012 and 2015
 
 (actual numbers)
22
Population by sex and province, 2012 and 2015 (proportions)
22
Male/female differentiation by province, 2012 and 2015
23
Inter–provincial migration
24
Internal migration by province, 2006–11
24
Population density
25
Population density by province, 2011
25
Breakdown by municipality
26
Geography and demographics of district and metropolitan
 
 municipalities, 2011
26
Population by municipality and race, 2011
28
Breakdown of district and metropolitan municipalities by
 
 race, sex, and age, 2007
30
Geographical distribution and urbanisation
30
Proportions of people living in urban areas by province and
 
 race, 1998, 2003, and 2008
30
Area size and population density of 16 selected
 
 urban areas, 2011
30
Population of 16 selected urban areas by race, 2000–11
31
The five fastest-growing urban areas, 2000-11
34
Population of 16 selected urban areas by race, 2011
34
Urban and rural populations in South Africa, 1990 and 2011
35
Urban and rural populations as a proportion of total
 
 population, selected countries, 1990 and 2011
36
Urban and rural populations as a proportion of total
 
 population, emerging markets, 1990 and 2011
37
Urban and rural populations as a proportion of total
 
 population, selected African countries, 1990 and 2011
38
DEMOGRAPHIC INDICATORS
39
Fertility rate
39
Fertility rate, 2001–11
39
Fertility rate by province, 2001–06 and 2006–11
40
Fertility rate, 2010–40
40
Total fertility rate,  international comparisons, 2010
41
Births
42
Birth rate, 2001–11 
42
Recorded live births by sex, 1991–2011
42
Births by numbers and rate, 2010–25
43
Births minus deaths
44
Births minus deaths, 1985–2025
44
Mortality
45
Death rate, 2001–11
45
Number of registered deaths, 1997–2009
45
Deaths by age and sex, 2009
46
Mortality rate, 2010–40
46
Infant mortality rate, 1985–2011
47
Infant and under five mortality rate, selected countries,
 
 1990 and 2011
48
Average adult mortality rates by sex, selected countries,
 
 2006–10
49
Average adult mortality rates by sex, emerging markets,
 
 2006–10
50
Average adult mortality rates by sex, selected African
 
 countries, 2006–10
51
Life expectancy
52
Life expectancy at birth by sex, 2001–11
52
Life expectancy by province and sex, 2001–06 and 2006–11
52
Life expectancy at birth by race, 1985–2025 (ASSA)
53
Life expectancy at birth by race, 1985–2040 (IFR)
54
Life expectancy at birth by sex, 2010–40
55
Life expectancy at birth, selected countries, 1990 and 2010
56
Survival to age 65 by sex, selected countries, 2010
57
Survival to age 65 by sex, emerging markets, 2010
58
Survival to age 65 by sex, selected African countries, 2010
59
Dependency
60
Dependency ratio by race, 2000–40
60
Old-age dependency ratio by race, 2000–40
61
Dependency ratio, selected countries, 1990 and 2010
62
Impact of HIV/AIDS
63
Number and proportion of people HIV-positive, 2001–11
63
Change in effects of HIV/AIDS on total population, 2000–25
63
Effects of HIV/AIDS on total population, 2000–25
64
AIDS deaths by province, 2000–25
65
Non-AIDS deaths by province, 2000–25
65
Effects of HIV/AIDS on provincial populations, 2000–25
66
Impact of HIV/AIDS on the size of the South African
 
 population, 2000–40
69
HOUSEHOLDS
70
Households by province, 2011
70
Household numbers by race, 2001–11
70
Households by district and metropolitan
 
 municipalities, 2011
71
Households by type, 2010
73
FAMILIES
74
Marriage registrations, 2003–10
74
Children by province, 2010
74
Child-headed households by province, 2002–10
75
Orphans by province, 2010
75
Orphans by race, 2010
76
Orphans, selected African countries, 2009
76
Orphans, 2010–25
76
Children living with/without their parents by race, 2010
77
Children living without any parent by race, 2010
77
Children living in skip generation households by race, 2010
77
Children with/without fathers by race, 1996–2010
78
Teenage pregnancy by province, 2002 and 2008
78
Teenage fertility rate, 1997–2010
79
Pupils who got pregnant in ordinary schools by province
 
 and grade, 2009
79
Teenage fertility rate, international comparisons, 2010
80
RELIGION
81
Major religious affiliations, 2001 and 2011
81
Major religious affiliations, 2011
82
LANGUAGE
83
Home languages, 2011
83
Home languages by race, 2011
84
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX
85
Human Development Index, selected countries, 1980–2011
85
Human Development Index, South Africa, 1980–2011
86
Human Development Index, selected countries, 1980–2011
86
Human Development Index rankings, selected countries,
 
 2000–11
87
Human Development Index rankings, emerging markets,
 
 2000–11
88
Human Development Index rankings, selected African
 
 countries, 2000–11
89
MIGRATION
90
Emigration
90
South Africans living in foreign countries, 2010
90
Immigration
91
Residence permits issued, 2009/10 and 2010/11
91
Work permits, 2009/10-2011/12
92
Work permits issued, 2009/10-2011/12
92
SADC immigrants to South Africa and remittances, 2011
93
Foreigners employed in gold, platinum, and coal mines,
 
 selected countries, 1996 and 2011
93
Refugees and asylum seekers
94
Asylum applications, 2009/10
94
Deportations
95
Deportations, 2003-10
95

Economy

The Economy chapter comprises 73 pages of data on all aspects of the South African economy plus numerous comparisons with other countries across the globe.

The Economy

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LEADING INDICATORS 98
Local indicators 98
Major indicators, 1955–2011 98
Current account surplus/deficit as proportion of GDP, 1955–2011 99
Further major indicators, 1993–2012 100
Key indicators and forecasts, 2009–15 100
International comparisons 101
Key economic indicators and forecasts, selected countries 101
Spending, savings, and trade as proportion of GDP, selected countries, 2010 102
Spending, savings, and trade as proportion of GDP, emerging markets, 2010 103
Spending, savings, and trade as proportion of GDP, selected African countries, 2010 104
   
ECONOMIC PROFILE 105
Gross domestic product (GDP) 105
Real growth and income levels and trends, 1961–2011 105
Real total gross domestic product, 1961–2011 106
Real annual economic growth, 1961–2011 107
Real GDP and personal disposable income per capita, 1961–2011 107
Real GDP per head, 1965–2014 108
GDP growth, 1910–2015 108
Income and rankings, selected countries, 2010 109
GDP per capita average annual growth, selected countries, 1970–1990 and 1990–2010 110
Structure of GDP 111
Breakdown by industry of gross value added, 1951 and 2011 111
Breakdown of gross value added by industry, 1951–2011 112
Breakdown of gross value added by industry, 2000–11 113
Gross value added by sector and subsector, 2010 114
Expenditure on gross domestic product, 1950–2011 115
Expenditure on GDP, 2000–11 116
Change in expenditure on GDP, 2000–11 116
Type of expenditure as proportion of GDP, 1950–2011 117
Changes in spending as proportion of GDP, 1950–2011 117
Provincial and local economies 118
Provincial economies 118
Regional GDP and GDP growth trends, 1995–2010 118
Average annual economic growth, 2001–10 118
GDP per head by province, 1996–2011 119
GDP by province and industry, 2010 (actual numbers) 119
GDP by province and industry, 2010 (proportions) 120
GDP growth by province and industry, 2010 121
Provincial contribution to GDP, national population, and employment, 2010 122
Urban economies 122
Economic indicators for 16 selected urban areas 122
Inflation and interest rates 124
Inflation and interest rates, 1976–2011 124
Inflation rates, 1976–2011 125
Interest rates, 1976–2011 125
Components of the CPI, 2011 126
CPI by province and area, 2009–11 126
Group and product inflation for all urban areas, 2010–11 127
Regulated administered prices in South Africa 128
CPI and CPI for administered prices and food, 2010–11 129
Administered prices average annual inflation, 2009–11 130
Breakdown of Gauteng unleaded petrol price 95, May 2012 130
Repurchase (repo) rate, dates of change 131
Saving 132
Personal saving, household debt, and gross domestic saving, 1960–2011 132
Saving, 1960–2011 133
Investment 134
All investment 134
Real gross fixed capital formation (GFCF), 1960–2011 134
Investment (GFCF) as a proportion of GDP, 1960–2011 135
Annual change in investment, 1960–2011 136
Investment by type of investment, 1998–2011 136
Investment by type of investment, 2001 and 2011 137
Investment by type of investor, 1960–2011 137
Private investment as proportion of total investment, 1960–2011  
GFCF by kind of economic activity, 1960–2011 140
Foreign investment 140
Inward investment 140
Foreign liabilities (foreign investment in South Africa), 1975–2010 140
Foreign liabilities (foreign investment in South Africa), 1956–2010 141
Foreign liabilities (foreign investment in South Africa), 1999–2010 142
Foreign direct investment inflow/outflow, 1994–2011 143
Foreign liabilities (foreign investment in South Africa) by region at 31st December 2010 144
Foreign direct investment (FDI) in South Africa by kind of economic activity, 1989–2010 145
Foreign direct investment (FDI) in South Africa by kind of economic activity as a proportion of total FDI, 1989–2010 145
Purchases and sales by foreigners on the JSE by month, 2009–12 146
Net purchases by foreigners on JSE, 2009–12 146
Outward investment 147
Foreign assets (South African investment in other countries), 1975–2010 147
Foreign assets (South African investment in other countries) by region at 31st December 2010 148
Foreign African assets (South African investment in Africa), 1994–2010 148
Foreign African assets (South African investment in Africa) by country at 31st December 2010 149
International comparisons 150
FDI stock as proportion of GDP, selected countries, 2004–11 150
FDI stock as proportion of GDP, emerging markets, 2004–11 151
FDI stock as proportion of GDP, selected African countries, 2004–11 152
Top ten recipients of FDI inflows in Africa, 2010–11 153
The exchange rate 154
The rand/euro and rand/pound exchange rate, 1990–2011 154
The value of the rand in euros and pounds, 1990–2011 154
The rand/dollar and real effective exchange rates, 1970–2011 155
The value of the rand in dollars, 1970–2011 156
Index of real effective exchange rate (average), 1990–2011 157
Weighting of 15 currencies in the ‘basket’ against which the rand is measured 157
Trade 158
South Africa’s chief trading partners, 2011 158
South Africa’s trade with the world, 2011 159
South Africa’s exports by region, 2011 159
Imports to South Africa by area, 2011 160
Exports from South Africa by area, 2011 160
South Africa’s trade with emerging markets, 2011 161
South Africa’s trade with selected African countries, 2011 162
Composition of exports and imports, 1991–2011 163
Exports from South Africa by sector, 1991–2011 164
Imports into South Africa by sector, 1991–2011 164
Growth in export and import value, selected countries, 1990–2010 165
Exports of goods and services as a proportion of GDP, selected countries, 2000 and 2010 166
Prices of key exports and imports 167
Average London gold price, 1946–2012 167
Brent crude oil and platinum prices, 1981–2011 168
Oil price, 1981–2011 169
Crude oil prices, 1861–2010 169
Crude oil prices, 1861–2011, constant 2011 prices 169
FORECASTS OF KEY ECONOMIC INDICATORS, 2013–16 170

Public Finance

The Public Finance chapter presents 40 pages of detailed information on how much the Government receives from whom, how much it spends and on what.

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REVENUE AND TAXATION 174
National revenues 174
Government finance as a proportion of GDP, 1977–2015 174
Income tax as a proportion of GDP, 1977–2015 175
Composition of national tax revenue, selected years, 1984/85–2012/13 175
Tax revenue by main source, 1994/95–2010/11 176
Tax revenue by main source as proportion of GDP, 1994/95–2010/11 176
Registered taxpayers, 2002/03–2010/11 177
Maximum marginal tax rates, 2002/03–2010/11 177
Individual taxpayers 178
What we will pay in 2011/12—2012/13 178
Number of taxpayers, 2006–10 178
Summary of taxable income and tax assessed, 2002–10 179
Assessed individual taxpayers by selected taxable income groups, 2007–10 179
Assessed individual taxpayers and tax assessed, 2009 180
Taxable income and tax assessed by age group, 2010 180
Assessed individual taxpayers by age group, 2007–10 181
Taxable income and tax assessed by sex, 2010 181
Assessed individual taxpayers by taxable income group and sex, 2009 182
Tax assessed by sector and economic activity, 2010 183
Assessed individual taxpayers’ tax assessed by selected sector, 2010 183
Taxable income and tax assessed by province, 2010 184
Taxpayers by province, 2010 184
Corporate taxpayers 185
Taxable income and tax assessed by sector and economic activity, 2009 185
Companies tax assessed by sector, 2009 185
Tax assessments, 2007–10 186
Companies and tax assessed, 2009 (taxable income greater than R500 000) 186
International comparisons 187
Top personal income tax rates, selected countries, 1985–2010 187
BUDGET 2011/2012 188
Breakdown of consolidated national and provincial spending by function and proportion, 2012/13–2014/15 188
Changes in consolidated national and provincial spending by function, 2008/09–2014/15 189
Breakdown of consolidated national and provincial spending as a proportion of total spending, 2008/09–2014/15 190
Main allocations as a proportion of the budget, 2008/09 and 2012/13 191
Main allocations as a proportion of the budget, 2008/09–2014/15 192
Major spending components, 2008/09–2014/15 192
Major spending components, 2008/09 and 2014/15 193
Public infrastructure expenditure by sector, 2011/12–2014/15 193
Consolidated budget vs GDP, 2012/13–2014/15 194
Division of revenue between spheres of government, 2011/12–2014/15 194
Key indicators and forecasts, 2009–15 195
LONGER-TERM BUDGETARY TRENDS 195
Expenditure 195
Expenditure allocations, 1994/95 and 2014/15 195
Expenditure under the new constitution, 1994/95–2014/15 196
Budgets and GDP 197
National government finance as a percentage of GDP, 1961–2016 197
Deficit 198
Budget deficit/surplus (actual and projected), 1961–2016 198
Public debt 199
Total debt of government, 1982–2015 199
Foreign debt as proportion of GDP, 1982–2015 200
Government debt as proportion of GDP, 1982–2015 200
State debt cost, 1983–2016 201
International comparisons 202
Budget balance as a proportion of GDP, selected countries, 2012 202
General government net debt and gross debt as proportion of GDP, selected countries, 2000–13  
PROVINCIAL BUDGETS 204
Overall budget outcomes 204
Summary of expenditure outcomes by province, 204
Own revenue collection 204
Provincial own revenue, 2010/11–2011/12 204
Breakdown of provincial expenditure 205
Provincial expenditure by type, 2011/12 205
Provincial personnel expenditure, 2011/12 205
Provincial education expenditure, 2011/12 206
Provincial capital expenditure on education, 2011/12 206
Provincial health expenditure, 2011/12 207
Provincial capital expenditure on health, 2011/12 207
All provincial expenditure 207
MUNICIPAL FINANCE 208
Operating and capital revenue and expenditure by metros and district municipality, 2009/10 208
Aggregate revenue and expenditure for all municipalities, Dec-11 209
Aggregate revenue and expenditure for metros, 2011/12 210
Aggregate revenue and expenditure for secondary cities, Dec-11 211
National debtors age analysis for all municipalities, as at 30 June 2012 211
Metros’ debtors age analysis, as at 30 June 2011 and 2012 212
Metros’ debtors by customer group, as at 30 June 2012 212
Secondary cities’ debtors by customer group, as at 30 June 2012 213
Municipal revenue sources 213

Employment

The 70-page Employment chapter shows you the winners and losers in South Africa’s labour market. It is packed with detail on employment, unemployment, employment equity, labour shortages, and job creation. Most indicators are broken down by race, sex, province, and industry, and show trends over the last decade.

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THE OVERALL EMPLOYMENT PICTURE 216
Labour market trends 216
Labour market trends 2001 and 2012 216
Labour market trends, 2011–12 217
Change in labour market indicators, 2001–12 and 2011–12 218
Employment, unemployment, and discouraged workseekers, 1994–2012 218
Change in employment and GDP, 1995–2012 219
Dependency on employed population, 1994–2012 220
Labour market participation and absorption rates 220
Labour market participation by race, 1994–2012 221
Labour market participation rate, 1994–2012 221
Labour market participation rate by race and sex, 2012 222
Factors affecting labour market participation, 2011 222
Labour market participation and social grants 223
Labour force participation and unemployment rates, selected countries, 1990 and 2010 224
Labour force participation and unemployment rates, emerging markets, 1990 and 2010 225
Labour force absorption rate by race, 2001–12 226
Labour market participation and absorption rates, 2001–12 226
Economically active population 227
Definition 227
Economically active population by race, 2001–12 227
Economically active population by race, 2012 228
Economically active population by race and sex, 2012 228
EMPLOYMENT 229
Stats SA vs Adcorp estimates of employment 229
Employment by race, 1994–2012 229
Overall employment by economic sector and industry 230
Overall employment by economic sector and industry, 2001–12 230
Change in overall employment by economic sector and industry, 2001–12 and 2011–12 231
Employment by industry, sex, and race 232
Employment by industry and sex, 2001 and 2012 232
Employment by industry, sex, and race, 2012 (actual numbers) 233
Employment by industry, sex, and race, 2012 (proportions) 234
Employment by occupation 235
Employment by occupation, 2001 and 2012 235
Employment by occupation, race, and sex, 2012 (actual numbers) 236
Employment by occupation, race, and sex, 2012 (proportions) 237
Employment equity 238
Employment equity employment by occupation, race, and sex, 2011 238
Employment equity top management employment by race, sex, and industry, 2011 239
Employment equity proportion of employed with disabilities, 2001–11 239
Employment in management by race and sex, 2000–11 240
Top management by race and sex, 2011 240
Employment equity in context, 2011 241
Black employees in the workforce at different levels of seniority, 1996–2011 242
Segments of the working population 243
Non-agricultural, non-domestic formal sector 243
Non-agricultural, non-domestic, formal private and public sector employment, 2011–12 243
Non-agricultural, non-domestic, formal private and public sector employment, 2006–12 244
Informal sector 245
Informal sector employment (non-agricultural) by industry, 2006–12 245
Agriculture 245
Employment in agriculture by sector, 2001–12 245
Paid workers in the formal agricultural sector, 2007–09 246
Private households 246
Employment in private households, 2001–12 246
Employment in the public sector 247
The public service 247
State employees as a proportion of total employment, 1999–2011 247
State employees by province and sex, 2011 248
State employees by province and race (actual numbers), 2011 248
State employees by province and race (proportions), 2011 248
State employees by race and sex, 2011 249
State employees by level of management, 2010 249
State employees with disabilities by province, 2010 250
Employees in national departments by race, 2011 251
State-owned enterprises and public institutions 252
Employees in state-owned enterprises and public institutions by race, 2011 252
Employees of general government 253
Employees by level of government, 2011 253
Expanded Public Works Programme 254
Number and average length of work opportunities created by the EPWP, 2004/05–2011/12 254
Characteristics of the employed 254
Employment by age group, 2012 254
Employment by highest level of education, 2012 255
Job creation 255
Factors affecting job creation, emerging market comparisons, 2000–09 255
Job creation in public sector programmes 256
UNEMPLOYMENT 257
Statistics 258
Unemployment numbers by race, 1994–2012 (official definition) 258
Number of unemployed (official definition), 1994–2012 258
Unemployment numbers by race, 1994–2012 (expanded definition) 259
Number of unemployed (expanded definition), 1994–2012 259
Unemployment rate by race, 1994–2012 (official definition) 260
Unemployment rate (official definition), 1994–2012 260
Unemployment rate by race, 1994–2012 (expanded definition) 261
Unemployment rate (expanded definition), 1994–2012 261
Characteristics of the unemployed (official definition) 262
Unemployment by industry and occupation, 2012 262
Categories of unemployed people, 2012 262
Unemployment by age group, 2012 263
Unemployment rate by age group, 2012 263
 Unemployment numbers and rates by age, race, and sex, 2012 264
Unemployment by highest level of education, 2012 265
Unemployment by length of time, 2012 265
Job search activities of the unemployed, 2011 266
Top five job search activities of the unemployed, 2011 266
International comparisons 267
Unemployment rates, international comparisons, 2012 267
UNDERUTILISATION AND NON-PARTICIPATION OF LABOUR 268
Not economically active 268
Persons not economically active, 2012 268
Discouraged workseekers 269
Discouraged workseekers by race, 2001–12 269
Discouraged workseekers by race and sex, 2011–12 270
Change in discouraged workseekers by race, 2011–12 270
LABOUR SHORTAGES 271
Job vacancies by industry, 2011 271
Job vacancies by occupation, 2011 271
Job vacancies by level of education required, 2011 272
PROVINCIAL LABOUR MARKET DATA 273
Overall data 273
Economically active population by province, 2012 273
Trends 273
Labour market trends by province, 2011–12 273
Change in unemployment rate by province, 2011–12 275
Unemployment 276
Unemployment numbers by province, 2005–12 276
Unemployment rate by province, 2005–12 276
MUNICIPAL LABOUR MARKET DATA 277
Labour market status 277
Labour market status by district municipality, 2011 277
Employment by industry and district municipality, 2011 279

Assets and Incomes

The 40-page Assets and Incomes chapter provides up-to-date information on whom in South Africa earns how much, by sector and occupation, and where they do it.

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ASSETS 286
Fixed and financial assets 286
Ownership of certain assets, 2011 286
Ownership of certain assets, by type of asset, 2011 286
Ownership of certain assets by race, 2011 287
Ownership of certain assets by type and race, 2011 287
Value of certain assets by type and race, 2011 287
Asset ownership and debt by race, 2011 288
Property ownership by race, 2011 288
Home ownership by race, 2011 (actual numbers) 288
Home ownership by race, 2011 (proportions) 289
Movable assets 289
Household ownership of motor vehicles by income category, 2011/12 289
Household ownership of motor vehicles by province, Dec-11 289
Household appliances and electronics by income category, 2011/12 (actual numbers) 290
Household appliances and electronics by income category, 2011/12 (proportions) 290
Household appliances and electronics by province, 2011/12 (actual numbers) 290
Household appliances and electronics by province, 2011/12 (proportions) 291
Movable assets, 2009–11 291
Assets on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE) 292
Total ownership of the JSE, 2000 and 2010 292
Total individual ownership of the JSE by race, 2000 and 2010 293
Ownership of JSE mandated funds by race, 2000 and 2010 293
Direct JSE share ownership by race, 2000 and 2010 294
Ownership of shares in JSE retirement funds by race, 1995–2010 295
WAGE TRENDS 296
Average earnings 296
Average monthly earnings in formal non-agricultural industries, 2011–12 (current prices) 296
Average monthly earnings in formal non-agricultural industries, 2011–12 (constant prices) 297
Average monthly earnings in formal non-agricultural employment in the public and private sectors, 2000–10 298
Monthly earnings by various categories, 2011 299
Monthly earnings by union membership, 2011 300
Minimum wages 301
Minimum wages for domestic workers 2003–12 301
Minimum wages and employment of domestic workers, 2003–12 301
Minimum wages for farmworkers, 2006–12 302
Minimum wages and employment of farmworkers, 2006–12 302
INCOMES 303
Income sources 303
Household sources of income by race, 2011 303
Income levels and categories 303
Households 303
Households by annual income category and province, 2011 303
Households by annual income category, 2011 304
Individuals 305
Adults by race, income group, and sex, 2009 (actual numbers) 305
Adults by race, income group, and sex, 2009 (proportions) 305
Adults by income group and province, 2009 (actual numbers) 305
Adults by income group and province, 2009 (proportions) 305
Adults by income group and highest level of education, 2009 (actual numbers) 305
Adults by income group and highest level of education, 2009 (proportions) 305
Income group growth rates by race, 2009–2010 305
Affluent individuals by race, age, and province, 2009 305
Income inequality 305
Gini co-efficient by race, 1996–2011 305
Gini co-efficient by province and race, 2011 306
Income trends 306
Very long-term income trends 306
Long-term income trends 306
Medium-term income trends 307
Aggregate income 307
Annual total disposable income by race, 1996–2011 307
Proportion of annual total disposable income by race, 1996 and 2011 307
Household income 308
Annual average household income by race, 1996–2011 308
Annual average household income by race, 1996 and 2011 308
Annual average household income by province, 1996–2011 309
Personal income 309
Annual income per capita by province, 1996–2011 309
Annual per capita income by race, 1996–2011 310
Annual per capita income by race, 1996 and 2011 310
EXPENDITURE 311
Monthly household expenditure categories by race, 2011 311
Total household expenditure categories, 2011 311
Expenditure by race and main expenditure group (proportions), 2008 311
CONSUMPTION 312
Distribution of final household consumption by main expenditure group, 1950–2011 312
Final household consumption expenditure, 2011 312
Final consumption expenditure by households, 1960–2011 313
CONSUMER CREDIT 314
Total outstanding consumer credit, 2012 314
Total credit granted by province, 2010–2012 314
Formal credit accessed by type, 2010–11 315
 SAVINGS AND INVESTMENT 315
Adults with savings and/or investments, 2009–11 315
Investments by race, 2011 315
Private equity investments, 2010 and 2011 316
Motivations for saving, 2011 316
Reasons for not having savings or investments, 2011 316
LIVING STANDARDS MEASURES 317
Living standards measures by age, race, income, and province, 2011 318
LSMs, change over time, 2001–11 320
Proportion change in LSMs, 2001–11 320
POVERTY 320
National trends 321
Poverty measures by race and sex, 1993, 2000, and 2008 321
Number and proportion of people living on less than $1 a day, 1996–2009 321
People living on less than $2 a day, 1996–2011 321
People living in relative poverty by race, 1996–2011 (actual numbers) 322
People living in relative poverty by race, 1996–2011 (proportions) 323
Provincial trends 323
People living on less than $2 a day by province, 1996–2011 (actual numbers) 323
People living on less than $2 a day by province, 1996–2011 (proportions) 324
People living in relative poverty by province and race, 2011 (actual numbers) 324
People living in poverty by province and race, 2011 (proportions) 325
Municipal poverty 325

Business and Labour

In over 80 pages of detail, the Business and Labour chapter provides a comprehensive picture of the business environment in South Africa, showing who does what business and what constraints or advantages they face in doing it in South Africa.

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BUSINESS 328
All sizes of business 328
Enterprises by size, 2004 and 2007 328
Contribution to GDP by size of business, 2006 328
Contribution to employment by size of business, 2012 329
Registered businesses by type, 2012 329
Public and private ownership of fixed capital stock 330
Fixed capital stock by ownership, 2000 and 2011 330
State-owned enterprises 330
State-owned enterprises, 2010/11 330
Entrepreneurship 331
Global entrepreneurship monitor 331
Entrepreneurial activity by country, 2011 331
Listed companies 332
Global rankings 332
South African companies ranked in the Forbes Top 1 000 companies, 2012 332
The top companies 333
South Africa’s top 100 companies by turnover, 2012 333
Top five companies by sector, 2012 335
The Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE) 337
The JSE all-share index, 1998–2011 337
Small business 337
All small businesses 337
Small, medium, and micro enterprises (SMMEs) by sector 337
Small business by size, 2010 337
Small business by age, 2010 337
Small business by stage, 2010 338
Small business owners by race and sex, 2010 338
Small business owners by age group, 2010 339
Small business owners by highest level of education, 2010 339
Franchises 339
Franchise systems by business category, 2008 339
Growth in franchise business units, 2006 and 2008 340
Franchise contribution to GDP, 2006 and 2008 340
Total employment in franchises, 2008 341
Average employment and investment per employee in franchises, 2008 341
Comparative statistics 342
Comparative statistics on small business, India, Brazil and South Africa (IBSA) 342
Business by sector 342
Sectoral contributions to GDP, jobs, and exports, 2011 342
Agriculture 343
Agricultural production by sector and product, 1999/2000 and 2009/10 343
Horticultural crop production, 1999/2000 and 2009/10 343
Animal product production, 1999/2000 and 2009/10  344
Agricultural production by sector, 1999/2000 and Oct-09 344
Mining 345
Contribution to mineral sales, 2012 345
Micro components, 2010 345
Manufacturing 346
Micro components, manufacturing, 2011 346
New car sales, production, and exports, 1995–2011 348
Physical infrastructure 349
Airports 349
Aircraft movements at South Africa’s ten major airports, 2002/03–2011/12 349
Energy 349
Electricity 349
Electricity generation by fuel type, 2009 349
Electricity usage by sector, 2009 350
Electricity capacity, 2012 351
Projected electricity supply and demand until 2020 352
Electricity price adjustment vs CPI, 1996–2011 353
Main sources of energy 353
Coal 353
Coal resources, production, consumption, and exports, 2010 353
Recoverable coal reserve holders, selected countries, 2008 354
Natural gas 354
Natural gas production, imports, and consumption, 2010 354
Oil and petroleum 355
Oil reserves, production, refinery capacity, imports, and consumption 355
Oil imports, 2011/12 355
Refinery ownership and crude throughput, 2012 355
Petroleum and diesel consumption by province, 2009 356
Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions 356
CO2 emissions, 1990–2008 357
Ports 358
Tonnage handled at South African ports, 2003–09 358
Total tonnage handled at South African ports (thousand tonnes), 2003–09 358
Railways 359
The rail network 359
Railways and roads 359
Road versus rail, 2007–2009 359
Roads 359
All roads 359
Water 360
South African dams, 2011 360
Water use by sector, 2010 360
The business environment 361
Competitiveness 361
Global Competitiveness Index rankings, 2012–13 361
South Africa’s ranking on the Global Competitiveness Index’s 12 pillars, 2012–13 362
South Africa’s ranking on the Global Competitiveness Index in detail, 2012–13 363
World Competitiveness Report, global rankings, 2012 366
Digital economy 367
Digital Economy Rankings, selected countries, 2010 367
Digital Economy Rankings, emerging markets, 2010 368
Networked Readiness Index, selected countries, 2012 369
Networked Readiness Index, emerging markets, 2012 370
Ease of doing business 371
Key components 371
South Africa’s ranking for ease of doing business, 2012 371
Financial development 372
Financial Development Index, 2011 372
Trading 373
Ease of trading across borders, selected countries, 2012 373
Ease of trading across borders, emerging markets, 2012 374
Ease of trading across borders, selected African countries, 2012 375
Tax 376
Business tax, selected countries, 2011 376
Business tax, emerging markets, 2011 377
Business tax, selected African countries, 2011 378
Mining attractiveness 379
Attractiveness of countries for mining investment, Dec-11 379
South Africa’s rankings for attractiveness for mining investment, 2009/10–2011/12 380
Economic freedom 381
Economic freedom of the world (Heritage Foundation), selected countries, 2012 381
Economic freedom of the world (Heritage Foundation), emerging markets, 2012 382
Economic freedom of the world (Heritage Foundation), selected African countries, 2012 383
Economic freedom of the world (Economic Freedom Network), selected countries, 2009–10 384
Economic freedom of the world (Economic Freedom Network), emerging markets, 2009–10 385
Economic freedom of the world (Economic Freedom Network), selected African countries, 2009–10 386
Productivity 387
Change in total employment, real remuneration per worker, and labour productivity in the non-agricultural, non-domestic sector, 1994–2011 387
Labour productivity, global rankings, 2010 388
Overall productivity, global rankings, 2010 389
Black Economic Empowerment 390
Proposed changes to the generic scorecard 390
The proposed new generic scorecard, 2012 390
JSE black directorships, 2008–10 392
Change in JSE black directorships, 2008–10 393
Black Economic Empowerment, 1995–2009 393
BEE transaction contribution to total transaction value, 1994–2009 394
Other 394
Ownership 394
Education 394
Employment 394
INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS 395
Trade unions 395
Trade unions and membership, 1994–2010 395
Cosatu affiliate membership, 1991–2012 396
Cosatu membership as a proportion of total employed, 1994 and 2012 397
Skill levels of Cosatu members, 2012 397
Income levels of Cosatu members and others, 2012 398
Income levels of Cosatu members, 2012 398
Income levels of other workers, 2012 398
Rivals to Cosatu affiliates, 2012 399
Bargaining councils 401
Bargaining councils, 1996–2011 401
Annual salary negotiations by type, 2011 and 2012 402
Annual salary negotiations by type, 2012 402
Wage settlements 403
Wage settlements and the inflation rate, 1998–2011 403
 Average wage settlement by major sectors and unions, 2011 404
Average minimum monthly wage across major sectors, 2011 405
Average wage increase by province, 2011 405
Strikes and lockouts 406
Mandays lost as a result of strikes, 1979–2011 406
Work stoppages by province, 2003 and 2011 407
Working days lost by industry, 2011 407
Work stoppages by duration, 2010 and 2011 407
Mandays lost in the top six strikes, 2011 408
Top six strikes by duration, 2011 408
Strike triggers (proportion of mandays lost due to triggers), 1987–2011 409
Strike triggers, 2011 409
Violence in strikes 410
Benefits 410
Proportion of employees receiving benefits by number of hours worked, 2003 and 2011 410
Labour legislation 411
Labour Relations Amendment Bill of 2012 411
The Basic Conditions of Employment Amendment Bill of 2012  412

Education

The Education chapter comprises 100 pages of detail on education in South Africa. The chapter provides an in-depth look at the education profile of the population and offers numerous international comparisons. The detailed sub-sections provide a comprehensive picture of the state of resources in public and private schools, and also provides comprehensive data on examinations and outputs. The chapter closes with a detailed section on higher education, including historical trends going back to 1991.

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FINANCE 414
Overall state spending 414
Education and other spending 1994/95–2013/14 414
Basic and provincial education spending, 2010/11–2014/15 414
Higher and further education spending, 2010/11–2014/15 414
All education spending, 2010/11–2014/15 414
Public education spending as a proportion of total  
 government spending, 1996/97–2012/13 415
Public total education spending and public school spending  
 as a proportion of GDP, 1995/96–2010/11 416
State spending on school education 417
Per capita expenditure for whites and Africans on  
 school education, 1953-1993 417
Spending per pupil by province, 2000/01–2010/11 418
Real spending per pupil in ordinary public schools  
 by province, 2000–2007 418
State spending on universities 418
State spending on universities, 2000 and 2011 418
State budget allocation according to institution and spending  
 per university and student, 2010 419
International comparisons 420
Public spending on education as a proportion of total  
 government spending, and of GDP, selected  
 countries, 2010 420
Public spending on education as a proportion of total  
 government spending, and of GDP, emerging  
 markets, 2010 421
Public spending on education as a proportion of total  
 government spending, and of GDP, selected African  
 countries, 2010 422
Structure of responsibility 422
QUALIFICATION PROFILE OF THE POPULATION 423
National Qualifications Framework (NQF) 423
Levels of education in South Africa 423
Level of education 424
National statistics 424
No schooling 424
Adults without education by race 424
Persons aged 20 and older, with no schooling by race,  
 2002 and 2011 (actual numbers) 424
Persons aged 20 and older with no schooling by race,  
 2002 and 2011 (proportions) 424
School education 425
Adults who have completed grade 9 by race 425
Persons aged 20 and older who have completed grade 9  
 by race, 2002 and 2011 (actual numbers) 425
Persons aged 20 and older who have completed grade 9  
 by race, 2002 and 2011 (proportions) 425
Adults who have completed grade 12 by race 425
Persons aged 20 and older who have completed grade 12  
 by race, 2002 and 2011 (actual numbers) 425
Persons aged 20 and older who have completed grade 12  
 by race, 2002 and 2011 (proportions) 426
Post-school education 426
Adults who have completed post-school education  
 by race 426
Persons aged 20 and older, who have completed post-school  
 education by race, 2002 and 2011 (actual numbers) 426
Persons aged 20 and older, who have completed post-school  
 education by race, 2002 and 2011 (proportions) 426
Literacy and numeracy 427
Children 427
Grade 3 literacy by province, 2001, 2007 and 2011 427
Grade 3 numeracy by province, 2001, 2007 and 2011 427
Persons aged 15 and older 428
Persons aged 15 and older who can write their own name,  
 by race, 2011 428
Persons aged 15 and older who can read, by race, 2011 428
Persons aged 15 and older who are numerate, by race, 2011 428
Persons aged 20 and older 429
Literacy rates of persons aged 20 and above by race  
 and province, 2011 429
International comparisons 430
Adult literacy, selected countries, 2010 430
Youth literacy rate by sex, selected countries, 2010 431
Local statistics 432
Highest education levels of over-21 year olds by  
 municipality, 2011 432
EDUCATIONAL ATTENDANCE 436
Breakdown by age 436
Attendance at educational institutions by race and age,  
 2011 436
Population aged between 4 and 6 attending an  
 educational institution, 2002–07 436
Population aged between 7 and 15 attending an  
 educational institution, 2002–09 436
Population aged between 7 and 15 attending an  
 educational institution by sex, 2002–08 436
Population aged between 16 and 18 attending an  
 educational institution by sex, 2002–2007 436
People aged between 5 and 24 attending an  
 educational institution, 2002–2008 436
Breakdown by institution 437
Population attending an educational institution, by type  
 of institution, 2009–11 437
Population attending an educational institution, by type  
 of institution and race, 2011 437
Breakdown by fee payment 438
People attending an educational institution who pay  
 annual tuition fees, 2002–11 438
Non-attendance 439
Reasons why individuals aged 7 to 24 are not attending an  
 educational institution by province, 2011 439
SCHOOLING 440
Enrolment 440
Early childhood development centres 440
Population aged between 0 and 4 attending an Early  
 Childhood Development (ECD) centre, by race, 2011 440
Population aged between 0 and 4 attending an Early  
 Childhood Development (ECD) centre, by province, 2011 440
Grade R 441
Enrolment by sex in grade R at sites attached to independent  
 and public schools, 1999-2011 441
Primary and secondary enrolment 441
Gross enrolment rate (GER) at primary school level,  
 1985, 1991, 1995, 1997–2007 441
Net enrolment rate (NER) of children aged between  
 7 and 13, 1997–2005 441
Gross enrolment rate (GER) at secondary school level,  
 1985, 1991, 1995, 1997–2009 441
Net enrolment rate (NER) of children aged between  
 14 and 18, 1997–2005 441
All schools and enrolment 442
Enrolment by grade at ordinary public and independent  
 schools, 2000 and 2011 442
Pupils at independent and public schools by province,  
 2000–2011 443
All schools 446
All schools and pupils 447
Schools 447
Pupils 447
Public schools 448
Number of schools 448
Public schools by province, 2000 and 2011 448
Number of Dinaledi schools by province, 2002-08 448
Number of former Model C schools in South Africa, 2009 448
Pupils and teachers 449
Pupils and teachers at public schools by province, 2011 449
Pupils and teachers at public schools, 2004 and 2011 449
Pupils 449
Pupils in ordinary schools, by province and race, 2010 449
No-fee schools and pupils attending no-fee schools, 2010 450
Pupils at farm schools by province, 1996 and 2000 450
Pupils in receipt of social grants by province,  
 2007 and 2010 450
Pupils and languages 451
Pupils in ordinary schools, by home language and  
 province, 2010 451
Pupils in ordinary public schools, by preferred language of  
 learning and teaching and province, 2010 452
Pupils who learn in their home language, 2010 453
Single-medium ordinary public schools by province, 2010 454
Parallel-medium ordinary pubilc schools by province and  
 language, 2010 455
Single and parallel-medium schools, 2010 456
Teachers 456
Teachers employed by School Governing Bodies (SGBs) 456
Teachers employed by school governing bodies,  
 1997-2012 456
Teacher qualifications 457
Teachers that are qualified by race, 1990–2011 457
Teachers that are qualified, 1990–2011 457
Qualified mathematics and physical science teachers  
 by province, 2008 457
Teacher intake 457
First-time registrations in teaching at tertiary institutions,  
 2005–08 457
New graduates entering teaching by province, 2011 457
Teacher vacancies 458
Vacancies by province, 2011 458
Teacher appointments 458
Teaching appointments, 2011 458
Temporary teachers 458
Temporary teachers by province at January 2010 458
Facilities and amenities 459
Public schools and toilets, 2011 459
Public schools and water supply, 2011 460
Public schools and electricity supply, 2011 461
Public schools and communications systems, 2011 462
Public schools and laboratory facilities, 2011 463
Public schools and computer facilities, 2011 463
Public schools and library facilities, 2011 464
Resources in schools 464
Limpopo textbook crisis 464
Safety in schools 465
Public schools and safety, 2011 465
Discipline in schools 466
Expulsions by province, 2008 and 2009 466
Pregnancy in schools 466
Pupils who got pregnant in ordinary schools,  
 by province and grade, 2009 466
Independent schools 467
Independent schools by province, 2000–2011 467
Pupils and teachers at independent schools by province,  
 2011 467
Pupils at independent schools by race and province,  
 2003–08 467
Examinations and output 468
Public examinations 468
National Senior Certificate Grade 12, also known as Matric 468
Candidates 469
Full-time and part-time candidates by province, 2009–11 469
Full-time and part-time candidates, 2009–11 469
Overall results 470
Senior certificate examination results, 1980–2007  
 (old curriculum) 470
National senior certificate examination results, 2008–2011  
 (new curriculum) 470
Results by province 470
Senior certificate examination results by province,  
 1994, 1998, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006,  
 and 2007 (old curriculum) 470
Results by race and province 471
Pass rate by race and province, 2011 (new curriculum) 471
African results, 1955–2011 472
African results, 1955–2011 472
Africans passing matric, 1955–2011 473
Subject results 473
Results in selected senior certificate examination subjects,  
 1999–2007 (old curriculum) 473
New curriculum: 15 selected subjects, 2011 473
Technical subjects, 2011 474
Languages, 2011 474
Passes by level of mark, selected subjects,  
 2008–11 (actual numbers) 475
Passes by level of mark, selected subjects,  
 2008–11 (proportions) 476
Accounting, 2011 477
Mathematics, 2011 477
Mathematics literacy, 2011 477
Physical sciences, 2011 478
Life sciences, 2011 478
English home language, 2011 478
English first additional language, 2011 479
Mathematics results in Dinaledi and other schools, 2011 479
Physical science results in Dinaledi and other schools, 2011 480
Matric results by race and type of school, 2009 481
Matric pass rates by race and type of school, 2009 481
Matric pass rates by race and type of school,  
 2009 (actual numbers) 481
Matric passes by race and type of school, 2009 (proportions  
 by type of school) 482
Matric passes by race and type of school, 2009 (proportions  
 by race) 482
Matric passes by race and type of school, 2009 482
Throughput 483
Throughput, 1995-1997 and 2009–2011 483
Independent Examinations Board 484
Examination results 484
Independent Examinations Board senior certificate  
 examination results, 1994–2011 484
International schooling comparisons 484
The quality of schooling 484
Reading achievement, grade 4, 2006 484
The school system, 2008 484
School enrolment rates 485
Selected countries, 2010 485
OTHER EDUCATION 486
Further education and training (FET) 486
Further education and training colleges 486
Enrolments for NC (V) levels by province, 2011 486
Enrolments for NC (V) levels, 2011 486
NC (V) subject results per programme, 2009 487
National certification rates, selected subjects, 2009 to 2011 488
Further education and training colleges by  
 provinces, 2012 489
FET colleges in South Africa, 2009 489
Vocational training and apprentices 490
Pupils who took trade tests through Indlela,  
 2006/07–2008/09 490
Number of apprentices that entered apprenticeship training  
 through apprenticeship contracts with Sector Education  
 and Training Authorities (Setas), 2006/07–2008/09 490
Nursing 491
Output of nursing colleges, private and public, 2000–11 491
Agricultural colleges 492
Enrolments at agricultural colleges by race, 2009 492
Graduates from agricultural colleges by race, 2009 492
PUBLIC HIGHER EDUCATION 493
Universities 493
Enrolment 494
Higher education participation rate 494
Higher education participation rates by race, 2010 494
First-year enrolment 494
Undergraduate students enrolling for their first year  
 of study, 2004–10 494
University enrolment 495
University and university of technology enrolment,  
 1985–2010 495
Head-count enrolmenta at universities and universities of  
 technology by race, 1995–2010 (actual numbers) 496
Head-count enrolment at universities and universities of  
 technology by race, 1995–2010 (proportions) 497
University head-count by race, 1999–2010 (actual numbers) 498
University head-count by race, 1999 and  
 2010 (actual numbers) 498
University head-count by race, 1999–2010 (proportions) 499
University head-count by race, 1999 and 2010 (proportions) 499
University of technology head-count by race,  
 1999–2010 (actual numbers) 500
University of technology head-count by race,  
 1999 and 2010 (actual numbers) 500
University of technology head-count by race,  
 1999–2010 (proportions) 501
University of technology head-count by race,  
 1999 and 2010 (proportions) 501
Staff 502
University staff and students 502
Students, staff and ratio of students to staff, 2010 502
Output 503
Publications 503
Publication of articles, books and conference  
 proceedings, 2009 503
Tertiary awards 503
All awards 503
Degrees, diplomas, and certificates awarded by universities  
 and universities of technology by field of study,  
 1996, 2006 and 2010 503
Degrees 504
University and university of technology awards by race and  
 subject, 1991 and 2010a (actual numbers): degrees 504
University and university of technology awards by race and  
 subject, 1991 and 2010 (vertical proportions): degrees 506
University and university of technology awards by race and  
 subject, 1991 and 2010 (horizontal proportions): degrees 508
Output of universities and universities of technology,  
 2010 (actual numbers) 510
Proportion of graduates in science, engineering, and  
 technology (SET) in higher education, 1994–2010 511
PRIVATE HIGHER EDUCATION 512
Officially registered private higher institutions, 2011 512
Private higher education institutions in South Africa, 2011 512
WORK AND EDUCATION 513
Education and employment 513
Employment by highest level of education, 2011 and  
 2012 (numbers) 513
Employment by highest level of education, 2011 and  
 2012 (proportions) 513
Education and unemployment 514
Unemployment by highest level of education, 2011 and  
 2012 (actual numbers) 514
Unemployment by highest level of education, 2011 and  
 2012 (proportions) 514

Health and social security

The health and social security chapter presents 78 pages of detail on the South African health care and social security systems. A section on health resources and services covers expenditure, access to medical insurance, medical personnel, hospitals, rates of immunisation, blood transfusion, circumcisions, and condom use. Also included is a section that tracks policy matters and provides information on the proposed National Health Insurance (NHI) scheme and the ongoing controversy concerning medical aids and prescribed minimum benefits. The health indicators section presents figures on mortality, nutrition, HIV/AIDS, and other diseases.

2012-Survey----Health-and-Social-Security-(WEB)-1.jpg The social security section provides an overview of how much is spent on social security and to whom this money goes. Data on social grant beneficiaries is available by type of social grant and by province and goes back to 1994. There is also information on how much South Africa spends on social security both as a proportion of total government expenditure and as a proportion of GDP. The section concludes with figures on care options for orphaned children, where trends in foster care, adoptions, and child and youth care centres are highlighted.

 

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HEALTH RESOURCES AND SERVICES 516
Expenditure 516
Public expenditure 516
Health and other spending, 1994/95–2013/14 516
Budgeted health expenditure 516
Consolidated national and provincial spending,  
 1994/95–2014/15 516
Public health expenditure as a proportion of total  
 government expenditure, 1995–2010 517
Public health expenditure as a proportion of GDP,  
 2002–2010 518
Private out-of-pocket health expenditure 519
Out-of-pocket health expenditure as a proportion of  
 private health expenditure, 1995–2010 519
International comparisons 520
Health expenditure, selected countries, 2010 520
Health expenditure, emerging markets, 2010 521
Health expenditure, selected African countries, 2010 522
Structure of responsibility 523
Responsibilities of national, provincial, and district  
 departments of health 523
Regulatory bodies 523
Medicines Control Council 523
Compensation Commission for Occupational Diseases 524
Council for Medical Schemes 524
South African Medical Research Council 524
Allied Health Professions Council of South Africa 524
South African Nursing Council 524
South African Dental Technicians Council 524
South African Pharmacy Council 524
Health Professions Council of South Africa 524
Medical insurance 525
Beneficiaries of medical aid schemes, 1997–11 525
Beneficiaries of medical aid schemes as a proportion of  
 total population, 1997–2011 525
Medical aid beneficiaries by province, 2004–11 526
Beneficiaries by province as a proportion of provincial  
 population, 2011 526
Medical aid coverage by province and race, 2011 527
Medical aid coverage by race, 2011 528
Medical aid coverage by race, 2002-11 528
Policy matters 529
Prescribed Minimum Benefits 529
National Health Insurance (NHI) 530
Medical personnel 531
All personnel 531
University and university of technology health sciences  
 awards by race, 1991–2010 531
Doctors 532
Medical graduates by institution, 2000–08 532
Public sector doctors by province, 2000–12 532
Clinical associates 533
South African doctors abroad and foreign doctors in  
 South Africa 533
Nurses 534
Public sector professional nurses by province,  
 2000–12 534
Output of nurses, private and public, 2000–10 534
Government nursing colleges by province, 2009 534
Doctors and nurses 535
Public sector people-to-doctor and people-to-nurse  
 ratio, 2011 535
Public sector medical personnel vacancies by  
 province, 2010 535
International comparisons 536
Physicians per 1 000  people, selected countries,  
 2003–10 536
Hospitals and clinics 537
Clinics  537
Hospitals  537
Public  537
Public hospitals by type and province, 2011 537
Private and public  538
Beds in public and private sector hospitals by province,  
 2010 and 2011 538
Hospitals in each province, 2010 and 2011 539
Hospitals, private and public sectors, 2010 and 2011 539
International comparisons 540
Hospital beds per 1 000 people, selected countries,  
 2003-08 540
Medicines 541
Medicines Control Council 541
Pharmacies 542
Registered pharmacists by province, 2003–11 542
Public sector pharmacists by province, 2000–2012 542
Public sector pharmacists as a proportion of  
 registered pharmacists, 2011 543
Private sector pharmacies 543
Vaccination and immunisation 544
Immunisation coverage of children under one year,  
 2000–10 544
Rates of immunisation and TB treatment, selected  
 countries, 2008, 2009 and 2010 545
Blood transfusion 546
Blood donation by race, 2006–09 546
Circumcisions 546
Male circumcision by province, 2009 546
Condom use 546
Condom use among adults, 2002–08 546
HEALTH INDICATORS 547
Mortality 547
Infant and under-five mortality 547
Infant mortality rate by province, 1994–2011 547
Under-five mortality rate by province, 1994–2011 548
Infant and under-five mortality rate, 1994–2011 548
Under-five mortality rate, selected countries,  
 1970–2010 549
Under-five mortality rate, emerging markets,  
 1970–2010 550
Under-five mortality rate, selected African countries,  
 1970–2010 551
Still birth rate by province, 2001–10 552
Still birth rate by district municipality,  
 2003/04–2008/09 552
Maternal mortality 552
Maternal deaths, 1990–2011 552
Unnecessary deaths of mothers, 2005–07 552
Causes of death 552
Leading causes of death, 2004–09 553
Top five causes of death, 2009 553
Causes of death by race, 2009 554
Causes of death, all races, 2009 556
Deaths by age and year of death 557
Deaths by age and year of death, 1997–2009 557
Termination of pregnancy 559
Termination of pregnancy by province, 1997–2010 559
Termination of pregnancy by age, 2001–06 560
Nutrition 561
Malnutrition 561
Severe malnutrition among under fives, 2001–08 561
Severe malnutrition among under fives by province,  
 2001–10 561
Household food adequacy by province, 2011 562
Obesity 562
Weight patterns by race and gender 562
Obese people by race and sex 563
Diseases 563
Cholera 563
Cholera cases and deaths, 1994–2009 563
Diarrhoea 564
Diarrhoea incidence among under fives by province,  
 2001–10 564
Diarrhoea incidence among under-fives, 2001–10 564
Malaria 565
Malaria cases and deaths, 1971–2011 565
Malaria deaths, 1971–2011 565
Measles 566
Reported cases of measles by province, 2008–11 566
Reported cases of measles by province, 2011 566
Tuberculosis (TB) 567
TB prevalence and death rates, 1990–2010 567
TB cases and pulmonary TB cases reported,  
 1995–2007 567
TB treatment rate, 1994–2009 568
Reported TB deaths by province, 2006–08 568
Incidence of TB per 100 000 people, 2010 569
HIV AND AIDS 570
Current data 570
Population segments living with HIV/AIDS 570
South African population as a proportion of  
 world population, 2010 570
South African HIV/AIDS cases as a proportion of  
 world HIV/AIDS cases, 2010 570
People living with HIV/AIDS by province, 2012 571
Historical trends 572
All infections 572
New HIV infections by year, 1999–2011 572
Adult infection 573
Adult HIV-prevalence rates by race, 1991-2011 573
Female infection 574
HIV infection rates of women attending public  
 antenatal clinics by province, 1992–2010 574
HIV infection rates of women attending public  
 antenatal clinics, 1992–2010 574
HIV infection rates of women attending public  
 antenatal clinics by province, 2010  575
HIV infection rates of women attending public  
 antenatal clinics by age, 1997–2010 575
Projected prevalence rates 576
HIV prevalence rate by province, 2002–25 576
HIV prevalence rates, 2002–25 576
Persons in need of ART and persons receiving  
 ART, 2005–11 577
Children receiving ART, 2005–10 577
International comparisons 578
Regional HIV/AIDS statistics, 2003–10 578
HIV prevalence among adults aged 15–24 by sex  
 and region, 2010 579
SOCIAL SECURITY 580
Social security budget 580
Social security and other spending, 1994/95–2013/14 580
Budgeted social security expenditure 580
National and provincial social security budget  
 allocations, 2012/13–2014/15 580
Structure of responsibility 581
Responsibilities of national, provincial, and district  
 departments of social development 581
South African Social Security Agency (SASSA) 581
Social security personnel and services 582
Population to social worker ratio by province, 2011 582
Social grants 583
Beneficiaries of social grants, 2001–2014/15 583
Social grant beneficiaries by province, 2011/12 584
Type of grant as a proportion of total grants,  
 2001–2012/13 585
Type of grant expenditure as a proportion of total  
 grant expenditure, 2011/12 585
Proportion of total grant expenditure per grant  
 type, 2011/12 586
Total social grant beneficiaries as a proportion of  
 total national population, 2001–2012/13 586
Selected social grant beneficiaries as a proportion of  
 total national population, 2001–2012/13 586
Old-age pension recipients as a proportion of over 60s,  
 2001–2012/13 587
Grants as proportion of total government expenditure,  
 2001-2011/12  587
Social grant expenditure as a proportion of GDP,  
 2003/04-2010/11 587
Increase in old-age grant in real terms, 1994-2011 588
Monthly value of social grants, April 2006–April 2012 589
Child support grant recipient numbers and payments,  
 October 1998–May 2008 589
Disability grant, 2001–2014/15 590
People with disabilities by sex, 1996–2009 590
War veterans grant, 2001–2014/15 590
Foster care, adoptions, and child and youth care centres 591
Foster care grant application backlogs by  
 province, 2012 591
Adoptions, 2004–12 591
Cross-racial adoptions by age group,  
 1 April–25 September 2012 592
Children in foster care by province, 2012 592
Child and youth care centres and the number of  
 children they accommodate by province, 2012 592
Orphans, adoptions, and children in foster care and  
 child and youth care centres, 2010–12 593
Private institutions and provision 593
Corporate Social Investment funding 593
Government funding 593

Living Conditions and Communications

The 2012 Living Conditions and Communications chapter runs for 83 pages and contains 15-year trends of service delivery indicators such as land, water, sanitation, housing, electricity, and refuse removal. The regular section on land reform includes new information on how some households use their land for agricultural purposes. The section on financial services includes new information on stokvels, with the communications and transportation sections concluding the chapter.

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OVERVIEW OF CHANGES 596
Changes over fifteen years 596
Changes by household, 1996 and 2011 (actual numbers) 596
Household and housing changes, 1996 and 2011  
(actual numbers) 597
Household types and facilities, 1996 and 2011 (proportions) 597
LAND 598
Land ownership 598
State-owned and privately-owned land by province,  
 March 2011 598
Private land sales and purchases 598
Land reform 599
Land restitution 600
Land restitution claims and settlements by province,  
 1995–2010/11 600
Restitution claims settled/to be settled, 2011 601
Restitution claims outstanding by province as at  
 March 2011 601
Restitution land transferred, land costs, and costs  
 of financial compensation, 1994/05–2010/11 602
Farms and land that could have been purchased  
 with financial compensation money 603
Land redistribution 603
Land redistribution by province as at March 2012 604
Land redistribution progress as at March 2012 605
Land redistribution targets met by province as at  
 March 2012 605
Outstanding hectares to be redistributed by province  
 as at March 2012 605
Farms acquired for emerging farmers and cost of  
 acquiring them, as at August 2009 606
Land delivered to land reform beneficiaries per year  
 through the land redistribution programme,  
 2001/02–2010/11 606
Land tenure reform 607
Draft Land Tenure Security Bill: implications 607
Land tenure in the former homelands 608
Land use for agriculture 610
Reasons for household involvement in agriculture by  
 province, 2011 610
Households by reason of involvement in agriculture, 2011 610
HOUSING 611
Housing types 611
National data 611
Detailed breakdown 611
Households by type of dwelling and race, 1996 and  
 2011 (actual numbers) 611
Households by type of dwelling and race, 1996 and  
 2011 (proportions) 613
Summary of changes 613
Types of housing occupied, 1996 and 2011 613
Types of housing occupied, 1996 614
Types of housing occupied, 2011 614
Changes in housing types, 1996–2011 614
Backyard structures 615
All backyard stuctures, 1996 and 2011 (actual numbers) 615
All backyard stuctures, 1996 and 2011 (proportions) 615
Trends in backyard structures 615
Provincial data 616
All housing 616
Types of housing by province, 1996 and 2011  
 (actual numbers) 616
Types of housing by province, 1996 and 2011 (proportions) 617
Change in types of housing by province, 1996-2011  
 (actual numbers) 617
Change in types of housing by province, 1996-2011  
 (proportions) 618
Urbanisation and internal migration: explanation of  
 informal dwelling trends 618
Informal dwellings 619
Households residing in informal dwellings by type and  
 province, 1996 and 2011 (actual numbers) 619
Households residing in informal dwellings by type and  
 province, 1996 and 2011 (proportions) 619
Changes in households residing in informal dwellings by type  
 and province, 1996-2011 (actual numbers) 620
Changes in households residing in informal dwellings by type  
 and province, 1996-2011 (proportions) 620
Informal settlements 620
Services available to households living in informal  
 dwellings, 2011 621
RDP housing 622
Households in RDP dwellings as a proportion of total  
 and formal housing by province, 2011 622
Hostels 622
Households living in hostels by province, 2011 622
Terms of occupation 623
National data 623
All housing types 623
Household tenure status by race, 2011 (actual numbers) 623
Household tenure status by race, 2011 (proportions) 623
Household tenure status by race, 2011 623
Household tenure status by sex, 2011 (actual numbers) 624
Household tenure status by sex, 2011 (proportions) 624
Household tenure status by sex, 2011 624
Household tenure status by type of housing, 2011  
 (actual numbers) 625
Household tenure status by type of housing, 2011  
 (proportions) 625
Problems with title deeds 625
State-subsidised housing by registration of title, 1994-2010 625
Definition 626
Progress in the issuing of title deeds 626
Causes of delays in the issuing of title deeds 626
Consequences of problems with title deeds 627
Provincial data 628
Household tenure status by province, 2011 628
Municipal data 629
Tenure status by municipality, 2011 629
International data 631
Housing provision 631
Housing backlog 631
Annual housing backlog figures, 1996/97–2008/09 631
Homelessness 631
Housing backlogs 631
New deadline for eradicating housing backlog 631
Government and private sector housing 632
Private sector and government housing construction,  
 1997/98–2011/12 632
Housing market by income levels, 2009 632
Home loans granted by individual income category, 2011 633
Government subsidy housing 633
Houses completed or under construction by province,  
 April 1994–March 2011 633
Qualifying criteria for government subsidy housing 633
Addressing the housing gap market 634
Planned units and units completed/in progress,  
 1994/95–2010/11 634
RDP/state subsidised housing by province, 2011 635
Private sector housing 635
Residential buildings completed by the private sector  
 by size, 2003–2012 635
Challenges in private residential housing construction 636
WATER AND SANITATION 637
Water 637
Free basic water 637
Delivery of free basic water by province by 30 April 2012 637
Households with access to free basic water,  
 2001/02–2010/11 638
All water 639
National data 639
Household water sources by race, 2011 (actual numbers) 639
Household water sources by race, 2011 (proportions) 639
Household access to potable water, 1993/94–2010/11 640
Households without water in the dwelling or on site  
 by race and distance travelled to nearest water  
 source, 2011 (actual numbers) 640
Households without water in the dwelling or on site  
 by race and distance travelled to nearest water  
 source, 2011 (proportions) 640
Provincial data 641
Access to piped water by province, 1996 and 2011  
 (actual numbers) 641
Access to piped water by province, 1996 and 2011  
 (proportions) 641
Selected water indicators by province, 2011 (proportions) 642
Water interruptions 642
Households that experienced water interruptions  
 by province, 2011 642
Water quality 643
Blue and green drop certification programmes 643
National municipal blue drop performance, 2009–2012 643
Best blue drop performers in each province, 2012 643
Sanitation 644
National data 644
 Household sanitation facility by race, 2011  
 (actual numbers) 644
 Household sanitation facility by race, 2011 (proportions) 644
Households with access to sanitation and using bucket  
 system, 1993/94–2010/11 645
Provincial data 645
Selected sanitation indicators by province, 2011  
 (actual numbers) 645
Selected sanitation indicators by province, 2011  
 (proportions) 646
Waste water quality 646
National municipal green drop performance, 2009 and 2011 646
Provincial green drop performance, 2011 647
Provincial green drop scores, 2011 647
DOMESTIC ENERGY 648
Sources of energy 648
Household sources of energy by race, 2011  
 (actual numbers) 648
Household sources of energy by race, 2011 (proportions) 649
Electrification 650
Households without electricity and households added  
 to the national grid, 1994/95–2010/11 650
Households with and without electricity by province,  
 2002 and 2011 650
Households without electricity by province,  
 2002 and 2011 651
Electricity for lighting, cooking, and heating by  
 province, 2011 651
REFUSE DISPOSAL 652
Household refuse disposal by race, 2011 (actual numbers) 652
Household refuse disposal by race, 2011 (proportions) 652
Households whose refuse is removed by municipalities  
 by province, 2002 and 2011 653
Households whose refuse is removed by municipalities  
 by province, 2011 653
BACKLOGS AND BASIC SERVICES 654
Backlogs by province, 2011 654
Provincial breakdown of consumer units receiving free  
 basic services from municipalities, June 2011 654
Indigent households and free basic services  
 by province, 2011 655
MUNICIPAL LIVING CONDITIONS 656
Living conditions indicators by province and  
 municipality, 2012 656
FINANCIAL SERVICES 658
Banking 658
Banking status of adults, 2007–2011 (actual numbers) 658
Banking status of adults, 2007–2011 (proportions) 658
Proportion of each race with bank accounts, 2007–2010 658
Number of Mzansi accounts opened, 2005–2010 659
Banking status of adults by income category, 2010 659
Stokvels 660
Value of annual contributions by type of stokvel, 2011 660
Stokvels by type and province, 2011 660
Insurance 661
Short-term insurance products held, 2007–2011 661
Long-term insurance products held, 2007–2011 661
COMMUNICATIONS 661
All 661
Source of national and international news for adults  
 by media type, 2001–08 661
Broadcasting 662
Adults with access to  television sets and radios, 2005–11 662
Top ten commercial radio stations by listenership, 2010 662
The Press 662
Print media publications, 1991–2011 662
Circulation of daily newspapers, 2011 663
Postal services 663
Access to postal services, by province, 2012 663
Telecommunications 664
Telephones 664
Households with landline access by race,  
 2011 (actual numbers) 664
Households with landline access by race,  
 2011 (proportions) 664
Households with cellular phone access by race,  
 2011 (actual numbers) 664
Households with cellular phone access by race,  
 2011 (proportions) 664
Household access to all telephones by race,  
 2007 and 2011 (proportions) 665
Household access to all telephones by province, 2011 665
Households with landline access and cellphone access  
 by province, 2011 666
Fixed line telephones and cellular phone subscriptions,  
 2000-10 666
Access to fixed line and cellular telephones,  
 selected countries, 2010 667
Access to fixed line and cellular telephones,  
 emerging markets, 2010 668
Access to fixed line and cellular telephones,  
 selected African countries, 2010 669
The Internet 670
Internet access by race, 2011 670
Internet users, 2000–2010 670
Internet access by province, 2011 671
Internet users per 100 people, 2010 672
Communications by municipality 673
Access to communication services by municipality, 2011 673
Transportation 677
Public and private transport 677
Commuters by mode of transport, 2003-10 677
Vehicle statistics 677
Registered vehicles by province, 2003/04 and 2010/11 677
Motorised vehicles registered by year-end, December  
 1999–March 2011 678
LIVING STANDARDS MEASURES 678

Crime and security

This 108-page long chapter includes all aspects of the criminal justice system – police, courts, prisons – as well as defence and private security. New additions include crimes against women, crimes in the course of vigilantism, and a new section on intelligence services. Regular features, such as the most serious crime trends broken down by crime category, year, province, and district municipality, are also included, many of them including data going back to 1995.

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Table of contents:

STATISTICS AND TRENDS 680
National crime trends 680
National crime figures, 1994/95 and 2011/12 (actual numbers) 680
National crime figures, 1994/95 and 2011/12 (rates per 100 000 people) 681
Daily incidence of the most serious crimes, 1994/95 and Dec-11 682
Eighteen- and one-year trends 683
Contact crime: actual reported cases and rates per 100 000 of the population, 1994/95–2011/12 683
Contact crime rates per 100 000 of the population, 1994/95–2011/12 683
Property-related crime: actual reported cases and rates per 100 000 of the population, 1994/95–2011/12 685
Property-related crime rates per 100 000 of the population, 1994/95–2011/12 685
Crimes heavily dependent on police action for detection: actual reported cases and rates per 100 000 of the population, 1994/95–2011/12 686
Crimes heavily dependent on police action for detection: rates per 100 000 of the population, 1994/95–2011/12 686
Other serious crime: actual reported cases and rates per 100 000 of the population, 1994/95–2011/12 687
Other serious crime rates per 100 000 of the population, 1994/95–2011/12 687
Arson, malicious damage, and total serious crime: actual reported cases and rates per 100 000 of the population, 1994/95–2011/12 688
Total serious crime rate per 100 000 of the population, 1994/95–2011/12 688
Particular categories of crime 689
Aggravated robbery 689
Breakdown of aggravated robbery, 1994/95–2011/12 689
Change in aggravated robbery cases, initial recorded period – 2011/12 689
Subcategories of aggravated robbery 690
Residential and non-residential robberies as proportions of total aggravated robberies, 2002/03–2011/12 690
Crimes against children 691
Contact crimes committed against children, 2002/03–Dec-11 691
Change in contact crimes committed against children, 2002/03–2011/12 691
Initiation school deaths 692
Initiation school deaths, 1 June–11 July 2012 692
Crimes against women 693
Contact crimes committed against adult females, 2006/07–2011/12 693
Change in contact crimes committed against adult females, 2006/07–2011/12 693
Crime on farms 694
Cases of stock theft and rates per 100 000 of the population, 1994/95–2011/12 694
Stock theft rates per 100 000 of the population, 1994/95–2011/12 694
Farm attacks by province, 1990–2012 695
Farm murders by province, 1990–2012 696
Farm attacks and murders, 1990–2011 697
Note on farm crime statistics 697
Farm attacks: comparison between SAPS and TAU data 698
Attacks on farmers and their families compared to other citizens, 2011 698
Farm and national murder rates, 2011 698
Arson 699
Arson by province, 2004/05–2011/12 699
Some cases of arson in 2012 699
Poaching 700
Rhino poaching, 2007–12 700
Rhino poaching by location, 2008–12 700
Crimes against and attitudes towards foreign nationals 701
South African attitudes towards foreign nationals, 2011 701
Xenophobic attacks 702
Crimes in the course of vigilantism 703
Violence during strikes 704
Strike violence, 1999–2012 704
Public violence 705
Incidents of public violence, 2004/05–2011/12 705
Transportation violence 706
Copper theft 706
Copper cable theft in the electricity industry, 2005/06–2009/10 706
Copper cable theft in the rail industry, 2008/09–2010/11 706
Corruption 707
Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI), selected countries, 2011 707
Perceptions of changes in corruption in the past three years, selected countries, 2010 708
Social grant crime 709
Social grant fraud cases by province, 2005/06–2011/12 709
Amount lost owing to social grant fraud by province, 2005/06–2010/11 709
Other crimes 710
Crimes not listed with the 20 most serious crimes: actual reported cases and rates per 100 000 of the population, 2004/05–2011/12 710
Provincial crime trends 711
Murder 711
Murder, 1994/95–2011/12 711
Change in murder rate, 1994/95–2011/12 711
Attempted murder 712
Attempted murder, 1994/95–2011/12 712
Change in attempted murder rate, 1994/95–2011/12 712
Sexual offences 713
Sexual offences, 1994/95–2011/12 713
The rate of all sexual offences, 2011/12 713
Robbery with aggravating circumstances 714
Robbery with aggravating circumstances, 1994/95–Dec-11 714
Change in aggravated robbery rate, 1994/95–2011/12 714
Assault with intent to inflict grievous bodily harm (GBH) 715
Assault with intent to inflict grievous bodily harm, 1994/95–2011/12 715
Change in rate of assault (GBH), 1994/95–2011/12 715
Burglary at residential premises 716
Burglary at residential premises, 1994/95–2011/12 716
Change in residential burglary rate, 1994/95–2011/12 716
Burglary at non-residential premises 717
Burglary at non-residential premises, 1994/95–2011/12 717
Change in non-residential burglary rate, 1994/95–Dec-11 717
Stock theft 718
Stock theft, 1994/95–2011/12 718
Change in stock theft rate, 1994/95–2011/12 718
Theft of motor vehicles 719
Theft of motor vehicles, 1994/95–2011/12 719
Change in motor vehicle theft rate, 1994/95–2011/12 719
Commercial crimes 720
Commercial crimes, 1994/95–2011/12 720
Change in commercial crime rate, 1994/95–2011/12 720
Drug-related crime 721
Drug-related crime, 1994/95–2011/12 721
Change in drug-related crime rate, 1994/95–2011/12 721
Municipal crime trends 722
Selected crime rates by municipality, 2011/12 (rates per 100 000 people) 722
Crime reporting 730
Households and individuals who reported their experience of crime to the police, 2011 730
Perceptions of crime 731
Household members that feel safe walking alone in their area when it is dark by race and sex of household head, 2011 731
Perceptions of changes in levels of crime by province during the period 2009–11 731
Non-natural deaths 731
Overall figures 731
Manner of non-natural death by cause of death, 2008 732
Manner of non-natural death by sex, 2008 (actual numbers) 732
Manner of non-natural death by sex, 2008 (proportions) 732
Top ten external causes of non-natural death, 2007 and 2008 733
Road accidents 733
Fatal crashes and fatalities by province, 2006/07 and Nov-10 733
Rates of fatal crashes and fatalities by province, 2010/11 734
Fatalities and fatal crashes by type of vehicle, 2010/11 734
Road user fatalities by type of motorised vehicle, 2010/11 735
Road user fatalities by province, 2010/11 735
Fatal road crashes: daily, monthly, and provincial averages, 2009/10 and 2010/11 735
Fatal crashes by contributory cause, 2010/11 736
Comparison of fatalities between selected modes of public transport, 2008 and 2009 736
Mining deaths 737
Mining industry fatalities by cause of death, 2010–11 737
Railway accidents 737
Railway injuries and fatalities by category of victim, 2007/08 and 2008/09 737
Railway injuries and fatalities by type of incident, 2007/08 and 2008/09 738
Comparisons of non-natural deaths 738
Non-natural deaths over a two-year period in selected fields 738
Crime trends and anti-crime expenditure 739
Expenditure on the criminal justice system as proportion of total government expenditure and Gross Domestic Product, 1994/95–2014/15 739
Crime numbers, rates, and expenditure on protection services, 1994/95–2010/11 740
Crime and public spending, 2007/08–2010/11 740
POLICE 741
Personnel 741
General statistics 741
Personnel in the SAPS by sex and race, March 2012 741
SAPS personnel by race, March 2012 741
Race and rank 742
SAPS personnel by rank and race, March 2012 742
Expenditure 743
SAPS expenditure on personnel by programme, Mar-12 743
SAPS personnel by programme, March 2012 743
Affirmative action 743
Affirmative action in the SAPS, March 2012 actual employment and 2010 employment equity targets 743
SAPS personnel by sex, March 2012 actual employment and 2010 employment equity targets 744
Ratios 745
Ratio of the population to police officers by province, December 2007 and September 2012 745
Population to police ratios, selected countries 745
Shortages 746
Employment and vacancies by programme, 2003/04 and Dec-11 746
Employment and vacancies by skills level, 2003/04 and Dec-11 746
Vacancy rates by skills level, 2003/04 and 2011/12 746
Public order policing 747
Crowd management police units and members, 1995–2011 747
Crowd management police unit members, 1995–2011 747
Public order policing units and members by province, 2011 748
Police reservists 748
Community policing forums 748
Community policing forums at station level by province, 2011 748
Fatalities 749
Police officers murdered, 1983/84–2011/12 749
Murders of police officers by province, 2004/05–2011/12 750
Crimes, corruption, and (mis)conduct in the SAPS 751
Escapes and escapees from police custody, 2001/02–Dec-11 751
Lost/stolen SAPS firearms and case dockets, 2001/02–Oct-09 751
Lost/stolen SAPS firearms, 2001/02–2009/10 752
Deaths of persons in police custody and as a result of police action, 2003/04–2011/12 752
Complaints and notifications received by the Independent Complaints Directorate (ICD) against SAPS members by province, 2011/12 753
Convictions and acquittals of SAPS members in criminal cases by crime category, 2011/12 753
PROSECUTIONS AND CONVICTIONS 754
Cases reported, prosecutions, and convictions as a proportion of all cases handled, 2003/04–2010/11 754
Process of referring charges to court by crime cluster, Dec-11 755
Trio crimes conviction rate, 2011/12 755
THE BENCH AND THE BAR 756
Legal Practice Bill of 2012 756
Key changes from the Bill’s predecessor 756
An incremental process 756
The first council 757
The split profession maintained 758
Transformational legal education 758
Admission, suspension, and striking off the roll 758
Maximum legal fees 758
Compulsory community service 758
New code of conduct 759
New ‘attorneys fidelity fund board’ 759
Ramifications 759
The Bench 760
Race and/or sex breakdowns 760
Judges of the superior courts by race, 2005 and 2012 760
Judges and magistrates by race, March 2011 760
Judges and magistrates by sex, March 2011 760
Magistrates by race, March 2011 761
The Bar 761
Members of the Bar by race and sex, April 2012 761
Members of the Bar by race, April 2012 762
PRISONS AND CORRECTIONAL SERVICES 762
Personnel 762
Correctional Services personnel by race, 2011/12 762
Prisons 762
General statistics 762
Prison population by sex and race, March 2012 (actual numbers) 762
Prison population by sex and race, March 2012 (proportions) 763
Prison population by crime category, March 2012 763
Prison population by age, March 2012 764
Sentenced prisoners and remand detainees, March 2012 764
Daily average prison population by sex, 1995/96–Mar-12 765
Daily average prison population, 1995/96–March 2012 765
Awaiting-trial detainees 766
Sentenced prisoners and awaiting-trial detainees, 1995–2012 766
Awaiting-trial detainees, 1995–2012 766
Children and juveniles 767
Prisoners under the age of 18 by crime category, Mar-12 767
Prison overcrowding 767
Prison overcrowding, March 1996–March 2012 767
Duration of sentences 768
Duration of sentences, March 1995–March 2012 768
Duration of sentences, 1995 and 2012 768
Duration of sentences: change in proportions, 1995–2012 769
Duration of sentences, 1995–2012 769
Deaths and medical releases of prisoners 770
Natural and unnatural deaths of prisoners, and medical releases, 1996–2011 770
Natural and unnatural deaths of prisoners by cause of death, 2011 771
Parole 771
Offenders considered for parole and offenders granted parole, 2008/09–2009/10 771
Medical parole applications and approvals, 2008–10 771
International prison trends 772
International prison statistics, selected countries 772
DEFENCE 773
Personnel 773
Overall statistics 773
Department of Defence personnel by race and sex, Mar-12 773
Employment and vacancies by programme as at March 2012 774
Defence reserves by army division and race as at March 2011 774
Command structures by race and rank, April 2007 775
Privates as a proportion of total personnel, April 2007 775
Command structures by race and rank, April 2007 776
Command structures by sex and rank, April 2007 776
Department of Defence personnel by occupation, Mar-12 777
Affirmative action in the South African National Defence Force 777
 measured against March 2012 employmentDepartment of Defence employment equity targets 777
Deployment outside South Africa 778
Peacekeeping operations in Africa, 2000–11 778
Number of people deployed for peacekeeping operations in Africa, 2000–11 778
International comparisons 779
Military expenditure and armed forces personnel, 2009 779
INTELLIGENCE SERVICES 780
Structures of South African Justice, Police, and Investigation Services 780
National Intelligence Coordinating Committee 780
Department of Justice 781
Public Protector 781
Special Investigating Unit 781
National Prosecuting Authority 782
Department of Police 782
Directorate for Priority Crime Investigation (Hawks) 782
Independent Police Investigative Directorate (IPID) 783
Department of State Security 784
Civilian Intelligence Services 784
Regulation of Interception of Communication and Provision of Communication Related Information 784
General Intelligence Laws Amendment Bill 785
PRIVATE SECURITY 786
Security businesses, security officers, and sworn SAPS officials, 1997–2011 786
Active security officers and sworn police officials, 1998–2011 786
Active registered security businesses by sector, 2005–11 787
Active registered security businesses by province, 2005 and 2011 787

Politics and Government

The 60-page Politics and Government chapter provides an up-to-date analysis of the political landscape of South Africa. It details party representation at national, provincial, and local level and provides data on audit performance of all tiers of government. A new section presents information on charitable giving. The chapter also covers opinion polls over the last decade on issues such as government performance, social cohesion, race relations, and international indices comparing South Africa’s democracy with the rest of the world.

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Table of contents:

THE STATE OF PLAY IN 2012 790
Parliament 790
The National Assembly 790
The state of play in the National Assembly after the 2009  
 national election 790
Proportional representation and seats held by party after  
 the 2009 national election 790
The National Council of Provinces 791
Seats held in the National Council of Provinces after  
 the 2009 provincial elections 791
Number of delegates to the National Council of Provinces  
 after the 2009 provincial elections 791
Provincial legislatures 792
The state of play in provincial legislatures following the  
 2009 provincial elections 792
Seats in provincial legislatures after the 2009  
 provincial elections 792
Local authorities 793
Classification of municipalities 793
Party representation 793
Ward and proportional representation votes by party, 2011 793
Representation in the eight metropolitan municipalities  
 in 2012 794
Representation in the eight metropolitan municipalities  
 in 2012  (proportions) 794
By-elections 795
By-elections results since the 2011 local government  
 elections 795
Control of councils 795
Councils controlled by party, 2000–2012 795
Traditional authorities 796
Recognised traditional leaders by province, 2012 796
The Traditional Courts Bill 796
Women in legislatures 797
Female members of the National Assembly, 1994–2012 797
Women in the National Assembly by party, 2012 798
Female members of provincial legislatures (MPLs),  
 1994–2009 798
Female local councillors, 2000–2011 798
VOTING TRENDS 799
Voter turnout 799
Voter turnout in national, provincial, and local elections,  
 1994–2011 799
Voting trends 799
ANC and DA/DP share of votes cast and eligible votes in  
 national and provincial elections, 1994–2009 799
Proportion of votes cast and eligible voters captured by  
 the ANC, 1994–2009 800
Proportion of votes cast and eligible voters captured by  
 the DA/DP, 1994–2009 800
Changes in party representation 1994–2009 800
Performance of Parliament 801
GOVERNMENT PERFORMANCE 802
Statutory audits 802
Audits of national departments, 2000/01–2010/11 802
Audits of provincial departments, 2000/01–2010/11 802
Unauthorised and irregular expenditure by province, 2012 803
Audits of municipalities, 2001/02–2010/11 803
Audits of public entities, 2001/02–2010/11 804
Other performance indicators 804
Rating of provincial premiers, 2012 804
Service delivery backlogs, 2012 804
Government debt to service providers 805
Invoices older than 30 days owed by national and  
 provincial departments, 2012 805
Money owed to water boards by municipalities, 2011 805
Debt owed to municipalities 805
Money owed to Gauteng municipalities, 2012 805
Confidence indicators 806
Business confidence in government 806
Business confidence in government policy, 2010-12 806
Change in business confidence in government  
 policy, 2010-12 806
Opinion polls 807
People who believe that the Government is performing well,  
 2000–10 807
People who believe that the country is going in the center  
 direction, 2000-2011 808
Satisfaction with service delivery by local municipalities  
 by race, 2011 809
Satisfaction with service delivery by local municipalities  
 by age, 2011 809
Satisfaction with service delivery by local municipalities,  
 by selected metropolitan area, 2011 809
Satisfaction with service delivery by local municipalities  
 by Living Standards Measure, 2011 810
Satisfaction with service delivery by local municipalities  
 by language group, 2011 810
Corruption perceptions, 2012 811
Perceptions of problems in South Africa by race, 2012 811
‘Service-delivery’ protests 811
Major service delivery protests, 2004–2012 811
Service delivery protests by province, Jan-July 2012 812
OTHER OPINION POLLS/SURVEYS 812
The Judiciary 812
Views on the Judiciary, 2012 812
Social cohesion 813
Happy future 813
People confident in a happy future for all races, 2000–11 813
Race relations 814
People who believe that race relations are improving,  
 2000–11 814
Identity 815
How South Africans describe themselves, 2004–11 815
Proportion of people who are proud of being South African,  
 2003–10 815
Civil society 816
Charitable giving and volunteering 816
Volunteers by sex and type of activity, 2010 816
Organisation-based volunteer work, 2010 816
World Giving Index, selected countries, 2011 817
GOOD GOVERNANCE index 818
The Rainbow Index, 2010/11 818
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 820
South African missions abroad, 2001/02–2010/11 820
Foreign countries and international organisations represented  
 in South Africa, 2012 820
INTERNATIONAL COMPARISONS 821
Budget transparency 821
Open Budget Index, selected countries, 2006–10 821
Open Budget Index, emerging markets and  
 African countries, 2006–10 821
Governance 822
Governance Indicators, selected countries, 2010 822
Governance Indicators, emerging markets, 2010 824
Governance Indicators, selected African countries, 2010 826
Freedom and democracy 828
Freedom in the world, selected countries, 2012 828
Press freedom in the world, selected countries, 2012 829
Democracy Index, selected countries, 2012 830
Democracy Index, emerging markets, 2012 832
Democracy Index, selected African countries, 2012 834
NOTES ON VARIOUS POLITICAL AND GOVERNMENTAL MATTERS 836
The ruling alliance 836
African National Congress (ANC) 836
Centenary celebrations 836
Conferences 836
Factionalism and succession 837
Cadre deployment 837
Membership figures and audits 837
ANC membership by province, December 2007-September  
 2012 838
ANC branches, 2007-2010 838
The ANC Youth League (ANCYL) 839
Julius Malema 839
South African Communist Party (SACP) 839
Congress of South African Trade Unions (Cosatu) 839
Governmental matters 840
The Presidency 840
The Cabinet 840
Provincial government 841
Departments under administration 841
Local government 841
Municipal financial audits 841
Foreign relations 841
African Union (AU) 841
European Union (EU) 841
Israel 842
Iran 843
Swaziland 843
Syria 843
Zimbabwe 843
Opposition parties 844
Democratic Alliance (DA) 844
ANC action against the DA in the Western Cape  844
Policy 844
Economic plan 844
Broad Based Black Economic Empowerment 845
The youth wage subsidy 845
Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP) and National Freedom Party (NFP) 845
Congress of the People (Cope) 846
The Judiciary 846
The Media 847
The Protection of State Information Bill 847
Media regulation 847
The Spear painting 847
Corruption 848
Arms deal 849
Standing Committee on Public Accounts (Scopa) 850
Political violence 850
Political killings 850