South Africa Survey Online 2008/2009

Politics & Government

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Politics & Government.jpgPOLITICS AT A GLANCE................................................................................................. 703

Politics overview....................................................................................... 703

THE STATE OF PLAY IN 2009........................................................................................ 704

Parliament......................................................................................................................... 704

The National Assembly............................................................................................. 704

The state of play in the National Assembly after the 2009
 national election......................................................................................... 704

Proportional representation and seats held by party after
 the 2009 national election................................................................. 704

Representation in the National Assembly by party after
 the 2009 national election................................................................. 705

The National Council of Provinces.......................................................................... 705

Seats held in the National Council of Provinces after the
 2009 provincial elections................................................................................ 705

Number of delegates to the National Council of Provinces
 after the 2009 provincial elections................................................... 705

Representation in the National Council of Provinces after
 the 2009 provincial elections............................................................. 706

Provincial legislatures................................................................................................... 706

The state of play in provincial legislatures following the 2009
 provincial elections........................................................................................... 706

Seats in provincial legislatures after the 2009 provincial
 elections................................................................................................. 706

Overall representation in the nine provincial legislatures after
 the 2009 provincial elections............................................................. 707

Local authorities.............................................................................................................. 708

The state of play in all local authorities........................................................... 708

Ward and proportional representation votes by party, 2000
 and 2006............................................................................................... 708

Ward and proportional representation seats by party,
 2000–2007 (actual numbers)............................................................ 709

Representation in the six metropolitan municipalities
 after the 2007 floor crossing.............................................................. 710

Councils controlled by party, 2007................................................................... 711

Councils controlled by party, 2000–2007........................................... 711

Results of the national election in selected municipalities, 2009................. 712

Results of the 2009 national election: Buffalo City (East
 London)................................................................................................. 712

Results of the 2009 national election: Cape Town........................... 712

Results of the 2009 national election: Ekurhuleni (East Rand)...... 713

Results of the 2009 national election: eThekwini (Durban)............ 713

Results of the 2009 national election: Johannesburg....................... 714

Results of the 2009 national election: Mangaung
 (Bloemfontein)............................................................... 714

Results of the 2009 national election: Mbombela (Nelspruit)......... 715

Results of the 2009 national election: Msunduzi
 (Pietermaritzburg)................................................................................ 715

Results of the 2009 national election: Nelson Mandela Bay
 (Port Elizabeth).................................................................................... 716

Results of the 2009 national election: Polokwane............................ 716

Results of the 2009 national election: Rustenburg............................ 717

Results of the 2009 national election: Sol Plaatje (Kimberley)...... 717

Results of the 2009 national election: Tshwane (Pretoria).............. 718

VOTING TRENDS................................................................................................................. 718

Voter turnout in national and provincial elections, 1994–2009.......................... 718

Voter turnout: 1994–2009..................................................................... 718

Voting trends..................................................................................................................... 719

Voting trends: 1994–2009..................................................................... 719

Changes in party representation 1994–2009............................................................ 720

Changes in party representation 1994–2009 — National
 Assembly .............................................................................................. 720

Parliament: year-by-year party representation in the National
 Assembly (main parties)..................................................................... 720

Changes in party representation in provincial legislatures,
 1994–2009............................................................................................ 721

THE SOUTH AFRICAN DEMOCRACY INDEX.......................................................... 724

South African Democracy Index.......................................................... 724

INTERNATIONAL COMPARISONS............................................................................... 725

World Bank Governance Indicators Report, 2007 (selected
 countries)............................................................................................... 725

The Democracy Index from The Economist, 2008
 (selected countries).............................................................................. 727

Press freedom in the world, 2008 (selected countries)....................... 729

Crime & Security

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Crime & Security.jpgTHE SECURITY PICTURE................................................................................................ 631

South African security at a glance........................................................ 631

STATISTICS AND TRENDS............................................................................................... 632

National crime trends..................................................................................................... 632

National crime figures, 1994/95 and 2008/09 (actual numbers).... 632

National crime figures, 1994/95 and 2008/09 (ratios)...................... 633

Fifteen-year and one-year crime trends.................................................................... 634

Contact crime: actual reported cases and rates per 100 000
 of the population, 1994/95–2008/09.............................................. 634

Contact crime rates per 100 000 of the population, 1994/95–
 2008/09................................................................................................. 634

Property-related crime: actual reported cases and rates
 per 100 000 of the population, 1994/95–2008/09....................... 636

Property-related crime rates per 100 000 of the population,
 1994/95–2008/09............................................................................... 636

Crimes heavily dependent on police action for detection:
 actual reported cases and rates per 100 000 of
 the population, 1994/95–2008/09................................................... 637

Crimes heavily dependent on police action for detection
 rates per 100 000 of the population, 1994/95–2008/09.............. 637

Other serious crime: actual reported cases and rates
 per 100 000 of the population, 1994/95–2008/09....................... 638

Other serious crime rates per 100 000 of the population,
 1994/95–2008/09............................................................................... 638

Contact-related and total serious crime: actual reported cases and
 rates per 100 000 of the population, 1994/95–2008/09.............. 639

Contact-related and serious crime rates per 100 000 of
 the population, 1994/95–2008/09................................................... 639

Aggravated robbery....................................................................................................... 640

Breakdown of aggravated robbery, 1994/95–2008/09................... 640

Change in aggravated robbery cases, initial recorded
 period – 2008/09................................................................................. 640

Crime on farms................................................................................................................ 641

Reported cases of stock theft in South Africa, 1994/95–2008/09. 641

Stock theft in South Africa per 100 000 of the population,
 1994/95–2008/09............................................................................... 641

Farm attacks and murders, 1991–2006/07........................................ 642

Crimes against children under the age of 18............................................................ 643

Reported crimes committed against children under
 the age of 18, 2002/03–2008/09...................................................... 643

Change in reported crimes against children under the age of
 18, 2002/03–2008/09......................................................................... 643

Provincial crime.............................................................................................................. 644

Murder.............................................................................................................. 644

Murder, 1994/95–2008/09.................................................................... 644

Change in murder rate, 1994/95–2008/09......................................... 644

Attempted murder.......................................................................................... 645

Attempted murder, 1994/95–2008/09................................................ 645

Change in attempted murder rate, 1994/95–2008/09...................... 645

All sexual crimes............................................................................................. 646

All sexual crimes, 1994/95–2008/09................................................... 646

All sexual crimes rate, 1994/95–2008/09........................................... 646

Robbery with aggravating circumstances.................................................. 647

Robbery with aggravating circumstances, 1994/95–2008/09........ 647

Change in aggravated robbery rate, 1994/95–2008/09................... 647

Assault with intent to inflict grievous bodily harm (GBH)...................... 648

Assault with intent to inflict grievous bodily harm, 1994/95–
 2008/09................................................................................................. 648

Change in assault (GBH) rate, 1994/95–2008/09............................. 648

Residential burglary....................................................................................... 649

Burglary at residential premises, 1994/95–2008/09......................... 649

Change in residential burglary rate, 1994/95–2008/09.................... 649

Business burglary........................................................................................... 650

Burglary at business premises, 1994/95–2008/09............................. 650

Change in business burglary rate, 1994/95–2008/09....................... 650

Stock theft....................................................................................................... 651

Stock theft, 1994/95–2008/09.............................................................. 651

Change in stock theft rate, 1994/95–2008/09................................... 651

Theft of motor vehicles................................................................................. 652

Theft of motor vehicles, 1994/95–2008/09....................................... 652

Change in motor vehicle theft rate, 1994/95–2008/09.................... 652

Commercial crimes........................................................................................ 653

Commercial crimes, 1994/95–2008/09............................................... 653

Change in commercial crime rate, 1994/95–2008/09...................... 653

Drug-related crime.......................................................................................... 654

Drug-related crime, 1994/95–2008/09................................................ 654

Change in rate of drug-related crime, 1994/95–2008/09................. 654

Municipal crime............................................................................................................... 655

Selected crimes and social indicators by municipality, 2007/08.... 655

Causes of death................................................................................................................. 657

Overall manner of non-natural deaths by cause of death, 2007.... 657

Manner of non-natural death by sex, 2007 (actual numbers)........ 657

Manner of non-natural death by sex, 2007 (proportions)............... 658

Top ten external causes of death, 2007.............................................. 658

Manner of violent deaths for the four main cities in South Africa,
 2007....................................................................................................... 658

Violent and firearm violence deaths: rates per 100 000 people,
 2007....................................................................................................... 659

Crime reporting............................................................................................................... 659

Proportion of respondents who reported their experience
 of crime to the police, 1998, 2003 and 2007................................. 659

Perceptions of changes in levels of crime over four years
 by race, 2007........................................................................................ 660

Perceptions of changes in levels of crime over four years
 by province, 2007................................................................................ 660

International crime trends............................................................................................ 661

International murder numbers and rates, 2006................................. 661

Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) for various countries,
 2001 and 2008..................................................................................... 662

Crime trends and anti-crime expenditure................................................................. 663

Crime numbers, rates, and expenditure on protection
 services, 1994/95–2007/08............................................................... 663

Crime and public spending, 1998/99–2007/08.................................. 663

POLICE.................................................................................................................................... 664

Personnel........................................................................................................................... 664

The South African Police Service (SAPS).................................................. 664

Number of personnel in the SAPS by sex and race, March 2008... 664

SAPS personnel by race, 2008............................................................... 664

Number of SAPS personnel by rank and race, March 2008............ 665

SAPS personnel and expenditure on personnel by
 programme, March 2008................................................................... 666

SAPS personnel by programme, 2008................................................. 666

Ratio of the population to police officers per province,
 March 2009.......................................................................................... 666

Affirmative action in the SAPS, March 2008 actual employment
 and 2010 employment equity targets (proportions)..................... 667

SAPS personnel by sex, March 2008 actual employment and
 2010 employment equity targets (proportions)............................. 667

Population to police ratios, selected countries.................................... 668

Police reservists............................................................................................... 668

Number of police reservists, 2004/05–2007/08................................. 668

Personnel shortages........................................................................................ 669

Employment and vacancies by programme, April 2007
 to March 2008..................................................................................... 669

Employment and vacancies by skills level, April 2007
 to March 2008..................................................................................... 669

Fatalities and escapes..................................................................................................... 670

Number of police officers murdered, 1983/84–2007/08................. 670

Number of escapes from police custody, 2000/01–2007/08.......... 671

Deaths in police custody and as a result of police action....................................... 672

Deaths in police custody, 2003/04–2007/08...................................... 672

Deaths of suspects as a result of police action, 2001/02–
 2007/08................................................................................................. 672

Crimes, corruption, and (mis)conduct in the SAPS................................................. 673

Lost/stolen SAPS firearms and case dockets, 2001/02–2008/09... 673

Lost/stolen SAPS firearms, 2001/02–2008/09................................... 673

Lost/stolen case dockets, 2003/04–2008/09...................................... 674

Convictions of SAPS members by crime category, 2007/08........... 674

PROSECUTIONS AND CONVICTIONS......................................................................... 675

Progress on discussions about conviction rates within the
 Criminal Justice System (CJS)................................................................. 675

Cases reported, prosecutions, and convictions as a proportion
 of all cases handled, 2003/04–2007/08.......................................... 676

Crimes and convictions, 2007/08......................................................... 677

THE BENCH AND THE BAR............................................................................................ 677

The Bench.......................................................................................................................... 677

Judges of the superior courts by race, 2005 and 2007...................... 677

Appointment of judges by race, 1994–2005...................................... 678

Magistrates by race, 2007...................................................................... 679

Judges and magistrates by sex, 2007 (proportions)........................... 679

Breakdown of judges and magistrates by sex, 2007........................ 679

Judges and magistrates by race, 2007 (proportions)......................... 680

The Bar.............................................................................................................................. 680

Members of the Bar by race and sex, April 2008.............................. 680

Members of the Bar by race, April 2008............................................. 681

PRISONS AND CORRECTIONAL SERVICES............................................................. 681

Personnel........................................................................................................................... 681

Correctional Services personnel by race, 2007/08............................. 681

Prisons................................................................................................................................ 682

General statistics............................................................................................. 682

Prison population by sex and race, January 2009
 (actual numbers).................................................................................. 682

Prison population by sex and race, January 2009 (proportions).... 682

Prison population by crime category, January 2009......................... 682

Prison population by age, January 2009............................................. 683

Daily average prison population by sex, 1995/96–January 2009.. 684

Daily average prison population, 1995/96–January 2009.............. 684

Prisoners unable to pay bail......................................................................... 685

Prisoners unable to pay bail amount as at 31 March 2008
 by province........................................................................................... 685

Awaiting-trial detainees................................................................................. 685

Sentenced prisoners and awaiting-trial detainees, 1995–2008....... 685

Awaiting-trial detainees longer than three months in custody,
 1996–2005........................................................................................... 686

Children and juveniles................................................................................... 686

Awaiting-trial detainees under the age of 18, 1995–
 January 2009....................................................................................... 686

Prisoners under the age of 18 by crime category, January 2009.... 687

Prison overcrowding....................................................................................... 687

Bail conditions.......................................................................................... 687

Long sentences......................................................................................... 687

Prison overcrowding, March 1996–March 2009............................... 688

Duration of sentences, March 1995 and January 2009
 (numbers and proportions)................................................................ 688

Duration of sentences, 1995 and 2009................................................ 689

Duration of sentences: change in proportions, 1995–2009............. 689

Deaths and medical releases of prisoners.................................................. 690

Natural deaths of prisoners and medical releases, 1996–2007....... 690

Prisoner escapes.............................................................................................. 691

Number of prisoner escapes, 1977/78–2007/08................................ 691

International prison trends........................................................................................... 692

International prison statistics, December 2008.................................. 692

DEFENCE................................................................................................................................ 693

Personnel........................................................................................................................... 693

Overall statistics.............................................................................................. 693

Department of Defence personnel by race and sex, March 2008.. 693

Employment and vacancies by programme as at March 2008..... 694

Department of Defence command structures by race and
 rank, April 2007................................................................................... 694

Department of Defence command structures by sex and rank,
 April 2007............................................................................................. 695

Affirmative action in the South African National Defence Force........ 696

Department of Defence employment equity targets
 measured against March 2008 employment................................. 696

Deployment of defence personnel outside South Africa,
 2000–08................................................................................................ 696

International comparisons............................................................................................ 697

Military expenditure and armed forces personnel, 2007.................. 697

PRIVATE SECURITY.......................................................................................................... 698

Change in the number of security businesses, security officers,
 and sworn SAPS officials, 1997–2007............................................ 698

Number of active security officers and sworn police officials,
 1997–2007........................................................................................... 698

Living Conditions & Communications

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THE LIVING CONDITIONS PICTURE.......................................................................... 543

South African living conditions at a glance 2008.............................. 543

OVERVIEW OF CHANGES............................................................................................... 544

Changes by household (actual numbers), 1996 and 2008.............. 544

Household and housing changes, 1996 and 2008
  (actual numbers)................................................................................. 545

Household types and facilities by proportion, and
 changes in proportions, 1996 and 2008.......................................... 545

Household and housing changes, 1996 and 2008 (proportions).... 546

Household trends............................................................................................................. 546

Dwellings.......................................................................................................... 546

Electricity, water, and sanitation................................................................. 546

LAND REFORM AND AGRICULTURE......................................................................... 547

Land restitution................................................................................................................ 547

Land restitution claims and settlements by province,
 1995–2008........................................................................................... 548

Breakdown of total restitution by type of settlement,
 1995-2008............................................................................................ 548

Breakdown of financial compensation settlements by area,
 1995–2008........................................................................................... 549

Restitution claims settled/to be settled, 2008..................................... 549

Breakdown of outstanding restitution claims by
 province as at March 2008................................................................ 549

Land redistribution......................................................................................................... 550

Land redistribution for agricultural development.................................... 550

Land Redistribution for Agricultural Development (LRAD)
 under the Land and Agrarian Reform Programme (LARP):
 delivery figures and targets by province.......................................... 551

Land redistribution progress by province as at September 2007.... 552

Land redistribution progress by March 2008...................................... 552

The 30% land-redistribution-by-2025 scenario.................................. 553

Total estimated funding required and funding at current baseline
 for land redistribution, 2008/09–2024/25...................................... 553

Land tenure reform........................................................................................................ 554

Agriculture........................................................................................................................ 554

Commercial farming units and employment on farms
 by province, 1993 and 2007............................................................. 554

WATER AND SANITATION.............................................................................................. 555

Water.................................................................................................................................. 555

Free basic water.............................................................................................. 555

Delivery of free basic water by province by 29 February 2009...... 555

All water........................................................................................................... 555

Household water sources by race, 1996 (proportions)...................... 555

Household water sources by race, 2007 (proportions)...................... 556

Household water sources by race, 2007.............................................. 556

Comparison of the main water source for drinking used
 by households, 2003–2008 (proportions)....................................... 557

Proportion of households with piped water in dwelling,
 off site, or on site by province, 2002–08......................................... 557

Urban and rural populations with access to improved
 water source, selected countries, 2006............................................. 558

Sanitation........................................................................................................................... 559

Household sanitation facility by race, 1996 (proportions).............. 559

Household sanitation facility by race, 1996 (proportions).............. 559

Proportion of households using bucket system or without
 sanitation facility by province, 2002–08....................................... 559

Population with access to improved sanitation facilities
 selected countries, 2006..................................................................... 560

HOUSING................................................................................................................................ 561

National housing profile................................................................................................ 561

Households by type of dwelling and race, 1996 and 2007
  (actual numbers)................................................................................. 561

Households by type of dwelling and race, 1996 and 2007
 (proportions)......................................................................................... 562

Types of housing occupied, 1996 and 2008 563

Types of housing owned, 2002 and 2007........................................... 563

Housing ownership status by race, 2007............................................. 564

Household size and housing ownership, selected countries............. 565

Types of housing by province, 1996 and 2007 (actual numbers).. 566

Types of housing by province, 1996 and 2007 (proportions)......... 566

Change in types of housing by province, 1996–2007
 (actual numbers).................................................................................. 567

Change in types of housing by province, 1996-2007
 (proportions)......................................................................................... 567

Types of housing by municipality, 2007 568

Quality of housing.......................................................................................... 572

Changes in housing types, 1996–2008................................................ 572

Terms of occupation..................................................................................... 572

Households by terms of occupation and race, 2007
 (actual numbers).................................................................................. 572

Households by terms of occupation and race, 2007
 (proportions)......................................................................................... 572

Household terms of occupation by province, 2007
 (actual numbers).................................................................................. 573

Household terms of occupation by province, 2007
 (proportions)......................................................................................... 573

Tenure status by municipality, 2007.................................................... 574

Housing provision........................................................................................................... 576

Housing and households by cost structure................................................ 576

Annual increase in housing costs (for houses in the
 80m2-400m2), 2003–2010................................................................. 576

Average nominal house prices by size of house, 2004–2008.......... 576

Owned and fully paid off households: comparison between
 district municipalities with over 70% ownership and the
 metropolitan municipalities, 2007.................................................... 576

Government subsidy housing....................................................................... 577

Total number of houses completed or under construction,
 April 1994–March 2009..................................................................... 577

Government and private sector housing.................................................... 577

Private sector and government housing construction,
 1997/98–2007/08............................................................................... 577

Private sector and government housing construction,
 1997/98—2007/08............................................................................. 578

Private sector housing.................................................................................... 578

Residential buildings completed by the private sector by size,
 2003–2008........................................................................................... 578

Private sector housing by size, 2003–2008......................................... 579

New houses less than 80m2.......................................................................... 579

New houses less than 80m2, 2003–2008............................................. 579

New houses over 80m2.................................................................................. 580

New houses over 80m2, 2003–2008..................................................... 580

New flats and townhouses............................................................................ 580

New flats and townhouses, 2003–2008.............................................. 580

Mixed housing developments...................................................................... 581

Affordability of housing............................................................................... 582

National affordable housing needs, 2003–2010............................... 583

Backyard structures....................................................................................... 583

Total number of backyard structures by province, 2008................. 583

Changes in the number of all backyard structures, 1996 and 2007..... 583

Small-scale landlords..................................................................................... 584

Informal settlements..................................................................................... 584

Households residing in informal settlements by province,
 1996 and 2008 (actual numbers)..................................................... 584

Households residing in informal settlements by province,
 1996 and 2008 (proportions)............................................................ 585

Households residing in informal settlements by province,
 1996 and 2008..................................................................................... 585

DOMESTIC ENERGY.......................................................................................................... 586

Sources of energy............................................................................................................ 586

Household sources of energy by race, 2007 (actual numbers)....... 586

Household sources of energy by race, 2007 (proportions)............... 587

Electricity for lighting, cooking, and heating by province,
 2008 (proportions)............................................................................... 588

Electricity for lighting, cooking, and heating by province, 2008..... 588

Electrification.............................................................................................................. 589

Households with and without electricity by province, 2008............ 589

Proportion of households without electricity by province, 2008..... 589

REFUSE DISPOSAL............................................................................................................. 590

Household refuse disposal by province, 2007 (actual numbers).... 590

Household refuse disposal by race, 2007 (proportions)................... 590

Household refuse disposal by race, 2007 (actual numbers)............ 590

Household refuse disposal by province, 2007 (proportions)........... 591

BACKLOGS AND BASIC SERVICES.............................................................................. 591

Living conditions backlogs broken down by province, 2007.......... 591

Provincial breakdown of consumer units receiving free
 basic services from municipalities, June 2007............................... 592

FINANCIAL SERVICES...................................................................................................... 592

Number of people with bank accounts by race, 2006 and 2007.... 592

Proportion of each population group with bank accounts,
 2006 and 2007..................................................................................... 593

Type of banking product used by race, 2007..................................... 593

COMMUNICATIONS........................................................................................................... 594

Postal services.................................................................................................................. 594

Households with and without postal facilities by province,
 2007 (actual numbers)....................................................................... 594

Households with and without postal facilities by
 province, 2007 (proportions)............................................................. 594

Postal services by race, 2007 (actual numbers)................................. 595

Postal services by race, 2007 (proportions)......................................... 595

Broadcasting..................................................................................................................... 595

Households with television sets and radios, 2002–08....................... 595

Top ten commercial radio stations, March 2009............................... 596

Telecommunications....................................................................................................... 596

Telephones................................................................................................................... 596

Breakdown of households by telephone access and race, 2007
  (actual numbers)................................................................................. 596

Breakdown of households by telephone access and race, 2007
  (proportions)........................................................................................ 596

Access to landline telephones by province, 2007.............................. 597

Access to cellphones by province, 2007.............................................. 597

Proportion of urban adults with access to telephones by race,
 2004 and 2007 (proportions)............................................................ 598

Change of urban adults with access to telephones by race,
 2004–2007........................................................................................... 598

Access to landline and cellular telephones, selected countries,
 2007....................................................................................................... 599

Internet......................................................................................................................... 600

Internet access by province, 2007 (actual numbers)........................ 600

Internet access by province, 2007 (proportions)................................ 601

Household internet access by race, 2007 (actual numbers)............ 601

Household internet access by race, 2007 (proportions).................... 601

Internet usage statistics for selected African countries,
 2000 and 2008..................................................................................... 602

Percentage of the population using the internet, 2008...................... 602

Internet users and people with access to a personal computer
  (PC), selected countries, 2007.......................................................... 603

Communications by municipality........................................................................... 604

Access to communication services by municipality, 2007.............. 604

Transportation................................................................................................................. 606

Vehicle statistics.......................................................................................................... 606

Registered vehicles and proportion of population with vehicles
 by province, 2007 and 2008............................................................. 606

Trends in vehicle ownership......................................................................... 606

Type of motorised vehicles registered by year-end,
 December 1999–March 2008........................................................... 606

Total number of vehicles owned by urban households,
 2004/05–2006/07............................................................................... 607

Change in number of vehicles owned by urban households,
 2004/05–2006/07............................................................................... 607

Road accidents............................................................................................................ 608

Number of fatal crashes and fatalities by province, 2006
 and 2008............................................................................................... 608

Percentage change in number of crashes and fatalities,
 2006–2008 608

Estimated cost of fatal crashes, 2007/08............................................ 609

Number of fatalities per type of crash, 2007/08................................ 609

Number of fatalities per type of vehicle, 2007/08............................. 609

Condition of roads...................................................................................................... 610

Assessment of the condition of roads.................................................. 610

Ranges of road condition categories.................................................... 610

Breakdown of the South African road network................................. 610

Condition of paved national and provincial roads, 1998 and
 2008....................................................................................................... 611

Public transport........................................................................................................... 612

Minibus taxis................................................................................................... 612

Passenger rail transport................................................................................. 612

Buses................................................................................................................ 612

Air travel.......................................................................................................... 612

Proportion of commuters using minibus taxis, trains, and buses
 in the past seven days, first quarter 2007 and second quarter
 2008....................................................................................................... 613

Proportion of commuters by mode of transport, 2008..................... 613

Bus subsidies by province and other transport allocations,
 2007/08................................................................................................. 614

MUNICIPAL LIVING CONDITIONS.............................................................................. 615

Service delivery indicators for local municipalities, 2007................ 615

Health & Welfare

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Health & Welfare.jpgTHE HEALTH AND WELFARE PICTURE.................................................................. 483

Health and welfare at a glance............................................................. 483

HEALTH INDICATORS...................................................................................................... 484

Mortality............................................................................................................................ 484

Infant and under-five mortality............................................................................... 484

Infant mortality rate by province, 1994, 1998, 2002, 2007,
 and 2008............................................................................................... 484

Under-five mortality rate by province, 1994, 1998, 2002,
 2007, and 2008.................................................................................... 485

Under-five mortality rate, selected countries, 1970, 1990,
 2005, and 2007.................................................................................... 486

Maternal mortality..................................................................................................... 487

Maternal mortality ratio, 1990-2005................................................... 487

Causes of death.......................................................................................................... 487

Ten leading natural causes of death 2004, 2005, and 2006........... 488

Causes of death by race, 2006.............................................................. 489

Death by age and year of death.............................................................................. 491

Deaths by age and year of death, 1997–2006................................... 491

Termination of pregnancy........................................................................................ 492

Termination of pregnancy by province, 1997-2007......................... 492

Termination of pregnancy by age, 2001–2006................................. 493

Malnutrition...................................................................................................................... 493

Severe malnutrition of under-five years by province, 2001–06..... 493

Diseases.............................................................................................................................. 493

Cholera......................................................................................................................... 493

Cholera cases and deaths by province, 2001–05.............................. 493

Diarrhoea 494

Diarrhoea incidence among under-fives by province and
 municipality, 2001–07/08................................................................. 494

Malaria......................................................................................................................... 496

Malaria cases and deaths, 1971–2007................................................ 496

Malaria deaths, 1971, 1998, 2000, 2002, 2004, 2005, 2006,
 2007....................................................................................................... 496

Occupational disease................................................................................................. 497

Occupational disease claims finalised................................................. 497

Tuberculosis (TB)........................................................................................................ 498

TB cases and pulmonary TB cases reported, 1995–2007............... 498

Total TB cases, 1995-2007.................................................................... 498

TB cases reported by province, 2000–07............................................ 499

Estimated TB cases and HIV co-infection by province, 2004........ 499

Estimated TB cases and HIV co-infection by province, 2004........ 500

Incidence of TB, selected countries, 2005.......................................... 501

HIV and AIDS................................................................................................................... 502

Overview....................................................................................................................... 502

HIV and AIDS overview........................................................................ 502

HIV infection rate by race, 2008.......................................................... 503

Current data................................................................................................................. 504

Population segments living with HIV/AIDS.................................................... 504

Snap-shot of population living with HIV/AIDS by province,
 1 July 2009 (actual numbers)............................................................ 504

Snap-shot of people living with HIV/AIDS by province,
 1 July 2009 (proportions)................................................................... 504

Historical trends.......................................................................................................... 505

All infections.......................................................................................................... 505

New HIV infections by year, 1998–2008........................................... 505

Adult infection...................................................................................................... 506

Estimated adult HIV-prevalence rates by population group,
 1991–2008........................................................................................... 506

Infection rate of women attending antenatal clinics..................................... 506

HIV infection rates of women attending public antenatal
 clinics, 1992–2007.............................................................................. 507

HIV infection rates of women attending public antenatal
 clinics by province, 1992–2007........................................................ 507

HIV infection rates of women attending public antenatal
 clinics by age, 1997–2006................................................................. 508

Projected prevalence rates........................................................................................ 509

HIV prevalence rate by province, 2002, 2008, and 2015............ 509

Estimated HIV prevalence rates, 2002–15......................................... 509

International comparisons........................................................................................ 510

Regional HIV/AIDS statistics, 2003, 2005, and 2007...................... 510

Adult (aged 15–49 years) HIV prevalence in countries which
 have conducted population-based HIV surveys in recent
 years....................................................................................................... 511

HEALTH RESOURCES AND SERVICES...................................................................... 512

Finance............................................................................................................................... 512

National health budget allocations, 2009/10–2011/12.................... 512

Provincial health budget allocations, 2009/10–2011/12................. 512

Health expenditure, selected countries, 2006..................................... 513

Medical insurance........................................................................................................... 514

Medical aid beneficiaries by province, 2004-2007........................... 514

Beneficiaries by province as a proportion of provincial
 population, 2007................................................................................. 514

Beneficiaries of medical aid schemes, 1997-2007............................ 515

Medical aid coverage by province and race, 2008............................ 516

Medical aid coverage by race, 2008.................................................... 517

Medical personnel........................................................................................................... 518

University health science awards by race, 2001–2006..................... 518

University health science awards, 2001–2006................................... 518

Registered health care personnel, 1990–2008.................................... 519

Number of public sector doctors by province, 2000–08.................. 520

Number of public sector professional nurses by province,
 2000–08................................................................................................ 521

Public sector people-to-doctor and people-to-nurse ratios,
 by province, 2008................................................................................ 521

Number of public sector doctors per 100 000 of population,
 2000–2008........................................................................................... 522

Number of public sector professional nurses per 100 000 of
 population, 2000–2008...................................................................... 522

Physicians per 1 000 people, selected countries, 2002-07................ 523

Hospitals and clinics....................................................................................................... 524

Hospital bed occupancy rate, 2006..................................................... 524

Number of beds in public and private sector hospitals by
 province, 2005 and 2008................................................................... 524

Number of hospitals in each province, 2006 and 2008.................... 525

Health services in each district/metropolitan municipality,
 2007....................................................................................................... 525

Vaccination....................................................................................................................... 527

Immunisation coverage of children under one year, 2000–06....... 527

Rates of immunisation and TB treatment, selected countries........ 528

WELFARE.............................................................................................................................. 529

Social grants..................................................................................................................... 529

Beneficiaries of social grants 2001, 2006/07, 2007/08,
 2008/09, 2009/10, and 2010/11...................................................... 529

Number of beneficiaries, 2001, 2006/07, 2007/08,
 2008/09, 2009/10, and 2010/11...................................................... 530

Old age grants and rates of inflation, 1994–2009............................. 530

Increase in value of social grants, April 2006–April 2009............... 531

Growth in child support grant recipient numbers and
 payments, October 1998–May 2008.............................................. 531

Benefits of social grants by province and municipality, 2007........ 532

Social wage........................................................................................................................ 534

Average value of social wage and social grantper household
 per month.............................................................................................. 534

Gross value of the social wage.............................................................. 534

Education

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Education.jpgTHE EDUCATION PICTURE............................................................................................ 375

Education at a glance............................................................................. 375

FINANCE................................................................................................................................. 376

Education spending.................................................................................................... 376

Consolidated education spending, 2008/09 and 2009/10............... 376

Spending per pupil in South Africa, 2008/09...................................... 377

Increase/decrease in spending per pupil, 2000/01–2008/09........... 377

Higher education spending................................................................................. 377

State spending on higher education, 1999 and 2009........................ 377

State budget allocation according to institution and
 spending per university student, 2007............................................. 378

International comparisons.................................................................................. 379

Public expenditure on education as a proportion of total
 government expenditure, and of GDP, selected
 countries, 2007..................................................................................... 379

QUALIFICATION PROFILE OF THE POPULATION.............................................. 380

National Qualifications Framework (NQF).............................................................. 380

Levels of education in South Africa..................................................... 380

Level of education........................................................................................................... 381

National statistics........................................................................................................ 381

Adults without education by race...................................................................... 381

Persons aged 20 years and older, with no schooling by race,
 1997 and 2007 (numbers)................................................................. 381

Persons aged 20 and older with no schooling by race,
 1997 and 2007 (proportions)............................................................ 381

Adults who have completed grade 8 by race.................................................. 382

Persons aged 20 and older who have completed grade 8
 by race, 1997 and 2007, (numbers)................................................. 382

Persons aged 20 and older who have completed grade 8
 by race, 1997 and 2007, (proportions)............................................ 382

Adults who have completed grade 12 by race................................................ 382

Persons aged 20 and older who have completed grade 12
 by race, 1997 and 2007 (numbers).................................................. 382

Persons aged 20 and older who have completed grade 12
 by race, 1997 and 2007 (proportions)............................................. 383

Adults who have completed higher education by race.................................. 383

Persons aged 20 and older, who have completed higher
 education by race, 1997 and 2007 (numbers)............................... 383

Persons aged 20 and older, who have completed higher
 education by race, 1997 and 2007 (proportions).......................... 383

Provincial and local statistics.................................................................................... 384

Persons aged 20 and older, by municipality or district and
 province by race, by highest level of education (proportions).... 384

Literacy.............................................................................................................................. 390

Persons aged 15 and older who can read and write....................................... 390

Persons aged 15 and older who can read and write, by race,
 2007 (numbers).................................................................................... 390

Persons aged 15 and older who can read and write, by race,
 2007 (proportions)........................................................................... 390

Persons aged 15 and older who can read and write, 2002–2007
  (proportions) ....................................................................................... 390

International comparisons.................................................................................. 391

Human development index and adult literacy, selected
 countries, 2006..................................................................................... 391

Youth literacy rate, selected countries, 2005–2007.......................... 392

EDUCATIONAL ATTENDANCE..................................................................................... 393

Proportion of population aged between 7 and 15
 attending an educational institution, 2007..................................... 393

Population attending educational institutions, by type
 of institution, 2007.............................................................................. 393

Population attending an educational institution, by type
 of institution and province, 2007..................................................... 394

Population attending an educational institution, by
 province, 2007 (proportions)............................................................. 395

Population attending an educational institution, by type
 of institution and race, 2007............................................................. 396

Provincial distribution of learners by poverty quintile, 2008........... 396

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLING............................................................... 397

Enrolment.......................................................................................................................... 397

Attendance at early childhood development centres, children aged 5-6.. 397

Attendance at early childhood education sites by province,
 and race, 2000..................................................................................... 397

School enrolment levels....................................................................................... 397

School enrolment, 2007.......................................................................... 397

Enrolment by grade at ordinary public and independent
 schools, 1999 and 2008 .................................................................... 398

Pupils at independent and public schools by province,
 2000 to 2008........................................................................................ 399

Resources........................................................................................................................... 401

Public schools.............................................................................................................. 401

Number of public schools................................................................................... 401

Public schools by province, 1999, 2003, and 2008........................... 401

Public schools by province, 1999 and 2008....................................... 402

Pupils and teachers 402

Pupils and teachers at public schools by province, 2008................. 402

Numbers of pupils and teachers at public schools,
 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008...................................... 403

Pupils at farm schools by province, 1996 and 2000......................... 403

School Governing Bodies (SGBs)...................................................................... 404

Teacher qualifications......................................................................................... 405

The qualification profile of teachers in public schools, 2005.......... 405

Teachers employed by School Governing Bodies (SGBs)............................ 405

Number of teachers employed by school governing bodies,
 1997, 2004, 2007, and 2008............................................................. 405

Teacher vacancies................................................................................................ 406

Vacancies by province, 2006–2008..................................................... 406

Temporary teachers............................................................................................. 407

Temporary teachers employed, by province, by years of service,
 July 2008............................................................................................... 407

Facilities and amenities....................................................................................... 407

Public schools and toilets, 2006............................................................ 407

Public schools and source of water supply, 2006.............................. 409

Public schools and laboratory facilities, 2006.................................... 410

Public schools and source of electricity supply, 2006....................... 411

Public schools and computer facilities, 2006...................................... 412

Public schools and communication systems, 2006........................... 413

Public schools and library facilities, 2006........................................... 414

Safety in schools................................................................................................... 415

Public schools and safety, 2006............................................................ 415

High student safety in school, grade 4, 2006...................................... 416

No-fee schools....................................................................................................... 417

Number and proportion of no-fee schools, and of pupils
 attending no-fee schools, 2008......................................................... 417

Independent schools.................................................................................................. 417

Independent schools by province, 1999, 2003, 2008....................... 417

Pupils and teachers at independent schools by province, 2008...... 418

School examinations and output.................................................................................. 419

Public examinations................................................................................................... 419

Definitions.............................................................................................................. 419

National Senior Certificate Grade 12, also known as Matric.......... 419

Overall results........................................................................................................ 420

Senior certificate examination results, 1980–2007:
 old curriculum...................................................................................... 420

Senior certificate examination results: 2008 — new
 curriculum............................................................................................. 421

Results by province.............................................................................................. 422

Senior certificate examination results by province, 1994, 1998,
 2003,2004, 2005, 2006, and 2007: old curriculum...................... 422

Matric pass rate by race and province, 2007..................................... 424

Subject results....................................................................................................... 426

Results in selected senior certificate examination subjects,
 1999–2007: old curriculum............................................................... 426

Subject results: new curriculum: 15 selected subjects, 2008........... 428

Senior certificate results: 2008 — technical subjects........................ 438

Language senior certificate examination results: 2008.................... 438

Municipal and provincial results........................................................................ 439

Matric results by municipality and province, 2008........................... 439

Throughput 2006–2008...................................................................................... 447

The grade 10 class of 2006 (numbers)................................................. 447

The grade 10 class of 2006 (proportions)............................................ 447

The grade 10 class of 2006.................................................................... 447

Independent examinations board........................................................................... 448

Examination results............................................................................................. 448

Independent Examinations Board senior certificate
 examination results, 1994–2008...................................................... 448

International schooling comparisons......................................................................... 449

Reading achievement, grade 4, 2006................................................... 449

The school system, 2008........................................................................ 450

School enrolment rates, selected countries, 2007.............................. 451

OTHER EDUCATION.......................................................................................................... 452

Further education and training (FET)....................................................................... 452

Further education and training colleges............................................................ 452

Further education and training colleges, NQF level 2,
 enrolment by subject, 2008 (numbers)............................................ 452

Further education and training colleges, NQF level 3,
 enrolment by subject, 2008 (numbers)............................................ 452

Further education and training colleges by province, 2009............. 453

Nursing colleges, 2006.................................................................................................... 453

Nursing colleges, 2006............................................................................. 453

PUBLIC HIGHER EDUCATION...................................................................................... 454

Enrolment.......................................................................................................................... 454

Tertiary enrolment................................................................................................ 454

University and university of technology enrolment, 1985–2007... 454

Tertiary enrolment by race................................................................................. 455

Head-count enrolment at universities and universities of
 technology by race (actual numbers), 1995–2007....................... 455

Head-count enrolment at universities and universities of
 technology by race (proportions), 1995–2007............................... 456

Head-count enrolment at universities and universities of
 technology by race, 1995 and 2007 (proportions)........................ 456

University head-count, by race, 1999-2007 (numbers).................... 457

University head-count, by race, 1999 and 2007 (numbers)............ 457

University head-count, by race, 1999–2007 (proportions).............. 458

University head-count, by race, 1999 and 2007 (proportions)....... 458

University of technology head-count, by race, 1999–2007
  (numbers)............................................................................................. 459

Student enrolment at universities of technology by race,
 1999 and 2007 (numbers)................................................................. 459

University of technology head-count, by race, 1999–2007
 (proportions)......................................................................................... 460

Student enrolment at universities of technology by race,
 1999 and 2007 (proportions)............................................................ 460

Output................................................................................................................................. 461

Tertiary awards, 1996, 2006, and 2007........................................................... 461

Degrees, diplomas, and certificates awarded by universities
 and universities of technology by field of study,
 1996, 2006, and 2007........................................................................ 461

University and university of technology awards by race and
 subject, 2007 (numbers): bachelor degrees and higher ............... 462

Universities and universities of technology awards by race and
 subject, 2007 (proportions): bachelor degrees and higher........... 463

Degrees and higher awarded by institution and race, 2007
  (numbers)............................................................................................. 464

Degrees and higher awarded by institution and race, 2007
  (proportions)........................................................................................ 466

Output of universities and universities of technology 2007............. 468

Throughput....................................................................................................................... 469

Tertiary throughput rate, 2002........................................................................... 469

Tertiary throughput rate, first-year-class of 2002.............................. 469

Input.................................................................................................................................... 470

National Benchmark Tests Project................................................................... 470

National Benchmark Tests Project, academic literacy..................... 470

National Benchmark Tests Project, quantitative literacy................ 470

National Benchmark Tests Project, mathematics............................. 470

World-wide university rankings, 2008....................................................................... 471

The world’s top universities, 2008........................................................ 471

Top 100 universities in Africa, 2009.................................................... 472

PRIVATE HIGHER EDUCATION................................................................................... 473

Private higher education institutions................................................................. 473

Private Higher Education, 2009, officially registered private
 higher education institutions (includes provisionally
 registered institutions) ........................................................................ 473

WORK AND EDUCATION................................................................................................. 474

Education and employment.......................................................................................... 474

Education and employment............................................................................... 474

Employment by highest level of education, 2008 and 2009
  (numbers)............................................................................................. 474

Employment by highest level of education, 2008 and 2009
  (proportions)........................................................................................ 474

Education and unemployment.......................................................................... 475

Unemployment by highest level of education, 2008 and 2009
  (numbers)............................................................................................. 475

Unemployment by highest level of education, 2008 and 2009
  (proportions)........................................................................................ 475

INTERNATIONAL COMPARISONS............................................................................... 476

UNDP Education Index, 2007/08 ........................................................ 476

Business and Labour

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Business and Labour.jpgTHE BUSINESS AND LABOUR PICTURE............................................................. 317

South African business and labour at a glance.................................. 317

All sizes of business......................................................................................................... 318

Number of enterprises in South Africa, by size, 2004 and 2007..... 318

Small, medium, and micro enterprises (SMMEs) by sector............. 318

Number of enterprises registered per year in South Africa,
 2000 and 2008..................................................................................... 319

Total active enterprises in South Africa, 2009................................... 319

Total active enterprises by province, 2009......................................... 320

Public and private ownership of fixed capital stock............................................... 321

Fixed capital stock by ownership, 2000.............................................. 321

Fixed capital stock by ownership, 2008.............................................. 321

State-owned enterprises.................................................................................................. 322

State-owned enterprises, 2007/08......................................................... 322

Number of employees at state-owned enterprises............................. 322

Franchises.......................................................................................................................... 323

Franchise systems by business category, 2008.................................. 323

Growth in franchise business units, 2006 and 2008.......................... 324

Franchise contribution to GDP, 2006 and 2008................................. 324

Capital invested in franchises for the 12 months up to
 29 February 2009................................................................................ 325

Franchise costs, 2008.............................................................................. 325

Total employment in franchises, 2008................................................ 326

Physical infrastructure.................................................................................................. 326

Vessels calling at South African ports, 2004–08................................ 326

Cargo handled by South African ports, 2004–08.............................. 327

Cargo handled by South African ports by number of
 containers invoiced, 2004–08........................................................... 327

The South African road network.......................................................... 328

The South African rail network............................................................. 328

Aircraft movements at South Africa’s ten major airports,
 2002/03–2007/08............................................................................... 328

The business environment............................................................................................. 329

Competitiveness index............................................................................................... 329

Global competitiveness index rankings, 2008–09............................. 329

World Competitiveness Report (global rankings
 2008 and 2009)................................................................................... 331

Ease of doing business in South Africa................................................................... 332

South Africa’s ranking on the ease of doing business,
 2008....................................................................................................... 332

Conducting business, 2008.................................................................... 333

Financial Development Index, 2008.................................................... 335

Economic freedom of the world from the Heritage
 Foundation, 2009 (selected countries)............................................. 336

Economic freedom of the world from the Economic Freedom
 Network, 2006 (selected countries).................................................. 337

Ease of trading across borders, 2008 (selected countries)................ 338

Attractiveness of countries for mining investment
 (selected countries).............................................................................. 339

Black Economic Empowerment.................................................................................. 340

The generic scorecard, 2007.................................................................. 340

Scorecard for qualifying small enterprises, 2007............................... 342

BEE status rating, 2007.......................................................................... 342

Black Economic Empowerment, 1995–2008.................................... 343

BEE transaction contribution to total transaction value,
 1994–2008........................................................................................... 344

The JSE Limited and global exchanges..................................................................... 345

The JSE all-share index, 1997–2008.................................................... 345

World Markets.......................................................................................... 346

The world’s top cities...................................................................................................... 348

The top cities in the world’s emerging markets, 2008....................... 348

E-readiness........................................................................................................................ 349

Global E-readiness rankings, 2008 (selected countries).................... 349

Networked Readiness Index, 2008–09 (selected countries)............ 350

Liquidations and Insolvencies...................................................................................... 351

Liquidations, 2003–09............................................................................ 351

Insolvencies, 2003–09............................................................................ 351

Tourism.............................................................................................................................. 352

Tourist arrivals in South Africa by year, 2002–08............................ 352

Thirty most popular global tourist destinations, 2007...................... 353

INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS............................................................................................... 354

Terms of employment.................................................................................................... 354

Employment by industry and terms of employment, 2007............ 354

Trade unions..................................................................................................................... 355

Trade unions and membership, 1994–2008....................................... 355

Trade union membership as a proportion of employed, and as
 a proportion of the economically active population,
 1994–2007........................................................................................... 356

Membership of Cosatu unions by province and affiliate................ 356

Employment by industry and trade union membership,
 2001 and 2007..................................................................................... 358

Bargaining councils 1996–2008.................................................................................. 359

Bargaining councils, 1996–2008.......................................................... 359

Wage settlements............................................................................................................. 360

Wage settlements and the inflation rate, 1998–2008....................... 360

Average wage settlement by major sectors and unions, 2008........ 361

Average minimum monthly wage across major sectors, 2008....... 362

Average wage increase by province, 2008.......................................... 362

Strikes and lockouts........................................................................................................ 363

Mandays lost as a result of strikes, 1979–2009................................. 363

Top six strikes by duration, 2008.......................................................... 364

Top six strikes by mandays lost, 2008................................................. 364

Strike triggers (proportion of mandays lost due to triggers),
 1987–2008........................................................................................... 365

Strike triggers, 2008................................................................................. 365

Employment & Incomes

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Employment & Incomes.jpgTHE EMPLOYMENT AND INCOMES PICTURE...................................................... 201

South African employment and incomes at a glance....................... 201

THE OVERALL PICTURE................................................................................................ 202

Labour market trends.................................................................................................... 202

Labour market trends, 2001 and 2009 ............................................... 202

Labour market trends, 2008–09........................................................... 203

Labour market participation and absorption rates................................................ 204

Labour market participation rate, 2001–09....................................... 204

Labour market participation rate by race and sex, 2009................. 204

Labour force participation rate, selected countries,
1990 and 2007..................................................................................... 205

Labour force absorption rate, 2001–09.............................................. 206

Economically active population.................................................................................. 206

Definition................................................................................................... 206

Economically active population by race, 2001–09.......................... 207

Economically active population by race, 2001–09
(wider definition of unemployment)................................................ 207

Economically active population by race and sex, 2009.................. 208

EMPLOYMENT.................................................................................................................... 209

Overall employment by economic sector and industry, 2001, 2008, 2009..... 209

Overall employment by economic sector and industry,
2001, 2008, 2009................................................................................ 209

Change in overall employment by economic sector and
industry, 2001–09............................................................................... 210

Employment by industry, sex, and race................................................................. 211

Employment by industry and sex, 2001 and 2009........................... 211

Employment by industry, sex, and race, 2008–09............................ 212

Employment by occupation, 2009....................................................... 217

Employment by occupation and type, 2009...................................... 217

Employment by occupation, race, and sex, 2009
(actual numbers).................................................................................. 218

Employment by occupation, race, and sex, 2009 (proportions)..... 219

Employment equity employment by occupation, race, and
sex, 2007 (proportions)....................................................................... 220

Employment in the public sector............................................................................. 221

Total number of state employees, 1999–2008.................................. 221

Breakdown by department.................................................................... 221

Breakdown by race and sex.................................................................. 222

Characteristics of the employed.............................................................................. 222

Employment by age group, 2009......................................................... 222

Employment by highest level of education, 2009............................. 222

Informal employment............................................................................................... 223

Informal employment by industry, 2008–09..................................... 223

Informal employment by occupation, 2008–09............................... 224

Change in informal employment by occupation, 2008–09............ 224

Segments of the working population....................................................................... 225

Non-agricultural, non-domestic formal sector................................................ 225

Non-agricultural, non-domestic, formal private and public sector
employment, 2007–09....................................................................... 225

Formal sector (non-agricultural) by industry, 2004–09.................... 225

Agriculture.............................................................................................................. 226

Employment in agriculture by type of employment, 2001–09....... 226

Number of paid workers in the formal agricultural sector
per province, 2007............................................................................... 226

Informal sector..................................................................................................... 227

Informal sector employment (non-agricultural) by industry,
2004–09................................................................................................ 227

Change in informal sector employment (non-agricultural)
by industry, 2004–09.......................................................................... 227

Productivity.................................................................................................................. 228

Change in total employment, real remuneration per worker,
and labour productivity in the non-agricultural, non-
domestic sector, 1994–2008............................................................. 228

UNEMPLOYMENT.............................................................................................................. 229

Unemployment numbers by race, 1994–2009.................................. 229

Number of unemployed (official definition), 1994–2009............... 231

Number of unemployed (wide definition), 1994–2009.................... 231

Unemployment rate by race, 1994–2009........................................... 232

Unemployment rate (official definition), 1994–2009...................... 233

Unemployment rate (wide definition), 1994–2009........................... 233

Unemployment by occupation and industry, 2008–09................... 234

Characteristics of the unemployed.......................................................................... 235

Characteristics of the unemployed, 2008–09.................................... 235

Unemployment by age group, 2008–09.............................................. 236

Unemployment rate by age group, 2008–09...................................... 236

Unemployed by highest level of education, 2008–09...................... 236

Unemployment by length of time, 2008–09...................................... 237

Unemployment by current marital status, 2008–09......................... 237

Unemployment levels, selected countries............................................................... 238

Unemployment rates, selected countries, 2009.................................. 238

UNDERUTILISATION AND NON-PARTICIPATION OF LABOUR...................... 239

Not economically active............................................................................................ 239

Persons not economically active, 2008–09........................................ 239

Underutilisation........................................................................................................... 240

Underutilisation of labour, 2008–09.................................................... 240

Underemployment...................................................................................................... 241

Time-related underemployment by industry, 2008–09.................... 241

Time-related underemployment by occupation, 2008–09.............. 242

Discouraged workseekers.......................................................................................... 243

Total number of discouraged workseekers, 1994–2007
(old definition)...................................................................................... 243

Defining the discouraged (new definition)........................................... 244

Total number of discouraged workseekers by race,
2001–09 (new definition)................................................................... 245

Discouraged workseekers, 2008–09 (new definition)........................ 245

Non-market activities................................................................................................. 246

Non-market activities, 2008–09........................................................... 246

PROVINCIAL LABOUR MARKET DATA.................................................................... 246

Overall data................................................................................................................. 246

Economically active population by province, 2009......................... 246

Trends 2008–09.......................................................................................................... 247

Labour market trends by province, 2008–09..................................... 247

Employment by industry........................................................................................... 249

Employment by industry and province, 2008–09............................. 249

Agriculture.................................................................................................................... 253

Number of paid workers in formal agricultural sector
per province, 2007............................................................................... 253

Unemployment........................................................................................................... 253

Unemployment numbers by province, 2004, 2008, 2009............... 253

Unemployment rate by province, 2004, 2008, 2009........................ 254

Unemployment rate by province, 2004, 2008, 2009
(official definition).............................................................................. 254

MUNICIPAL LABOUR MARKET DATA....................................................................... 255

Labour market status................................................................................................. 255

Labour market status by race............................................................... 255

Employment by industry........................................................................................... 261

Employment by industry........................................................................ 261

INCOME AND EXPENDITURE........................................................................................ 267

Wage trends...................................................................................................................... 267

Trends in average monthly earnings in formal non-agricultural
industries, 2007–08 (current prices)................................................. 267

Trends in average monthly earnings in formal non-agricultural
industries, 2007–08 (constant prices).............................................. 267

Incomes.............................................................................................................................. 268

Income levels and categories.................................................................................... 268

Number of households by income category and province, 2008... 268

Proportion of households by income category and province,
2008....................................................................................................... 269

Average household income by province............................................. 270

Personal monthly income by province, 2007 (numbers).................. 271

Personal monthly income by province, 2007 (proportions)............. 272

Personal monthly income, 2007 (proportions)................................... 272

Adults by race, income group, and sex, 2008 (numbers)................. 273

Adults by race and income group, 2008 (numbers).......................... 273

Adults by race, income group, and sex, 2008 (proportions)............ 274

Adults by income group and province, 2008 (numbers).................. 274

Adults by income group and province, 2008 (proportions)............. 275

Adults by income group and highest level of education,
2007 (proportions)............................................................................... 275

Adults by income group and highest level of education,
2007 (numbers).................................................................................... 276

Adults by income group and highest level of education,
2007 (proportions)............................................................................... 276

Remuneration of public servants: the executive, the National
Assembly, and the National Council of Provinces (NCOP)......... 277

Remuneration of public servants: provinces...................................... 278

Remuneration of public servants: local government........................ 278

Remuneration: traditional leaders........................................................ 279

Remuneration: the Judiciary................................................................. 279

Income sources........................................................................................................... 280

Number of households by main source of income by race,
2006–07................................................................................................ 280

Proportion of households by main source of income by race,
2006–07................................................................................................ 280

Proportion of households by main source of income by race
(African and other), 2007................................................................. 281

Income inequality....................................................................................................... 282

Gini co-efficient by race, 1996–2008.................................................. 282

Gini co-efficient by province and race, 2008..................................... 282

INCOME TRENDS................................................................................................................ 283

Long-term income trends.................................................................................... 283

Real personal disposable income per head by race,
1960 and 2007..................................................................................... 283

Personal disposable income share by race, 1960 and 2007............ 283

Real personal disposable income per head by race, 1960–2007.... 284

Personal disposable income by race, 1960 and 2007....................... 285

Medium-term income trends.............................................................................. 285

Personal annual income per head by province, 1996–2008........... 285

Household annual average income by province, 1996–2008........ 286

Annual total disposable income by race, 1996–2008...................... 287

Annual total disposable income by race, 1998 and 2008................ 288

Annual per capita income by race, 1996–2008................................. 289

Annual per capita income by race, 1998 and 2008.......................... 289

Annual average household income by race, 1996–2008................. 290

Annual average household income by race, 1998 and 2008.......... 290

Average per capita income by race...................................................... 291

Expenditure....................................................................................................................... 291

Household expenditure categories by race, 2006–07....................... 291

Household expenditure categories by race and sex, 2007............... 292

Household expenditure categories by sex, 2007................................ 292

Consumption..................................................................................................................... 293

Total and average household consumption expenditure
by main expenditure group, 2005/06.............................................. 293

Average annual household consumption expenditure
by province........................................................................................... 294

Distribution of household consumption expenditure
by main expenditure group, excluding imputed rent,
mortgage, and other unclassified expenses.................................... 295

Household consumption, 2005/06....................................................... 295

Private consumption expenditure by households, 1965–2008....... 296

Credit.................................................................................................................................. 297

Levels of indebtedness by province, 2008.......................................... 297

Sources of credit....................................................................................... 297

Living Standards Measures.......................................................................................... 298

Living standards measures by age, race, income, and
province, 2008..................................................................................... 299

LSMs, change over time, 2001–08....................................................... 301

POVERTY............................................................................................................................... 302

Poverty trends.............................................................................................................. 302

Number and proportion of people living on less than $1/day,
1996–2008........................................................................................... 302

Number of people living on less than US$1 a day, 1996–2008...... 302

Number of people living in relative poverty by race,
1996–2008........................................................................................... 303

Proportion of people living in relative poverty by race,
1996–2008........................................................................................... 303

Proportion of people living in relative poverty, 1998 and 2008...... 304

The poverty gap.......................................................................................................... 304

The poverty gap by race, 1996–2008 (in millions of rands)............ 304

The poverty gap by race, 1998 and 2008........................................... 305

Provincial poverty....................................................................................................... 305

Poverty levels: people living in poverty by province and race,
2008 (actual numbers)....................................................................... 305

Poverty levels: people living in poverty by province and race,
2008 (proportions)............................................................................... 306

Proportion of people living on less than $1 per day by province,
1996–2008........................................................................................... 306

Number of people living on less than $1 per day by province,
1996–2008........................................................................................... 307

Proportion of people living on less than $1 per day by province,
1996–2008........................................................................................... 308

Municipal poverty...................................................................................................... 309

Poverty rate by district municipality.................................................... 309

The Economy

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The Economy.jpgMACRO-ECONOMIC PICTURE........................................................................................ 85

South Africa at a glance........................................................................... 85

LEADING INDICATORS....................................................................................................... 86

Local indicators................................................................................................................. 86

Major indicators, 1955–2008.................................................................. 86

Current account surplus/deficit as proportion of GDP,
 1955–2008.............................................................................................. 87

Further major indicators, 1993–2009.................................................... 88

Key indicators and forecasts, 2005–11................................................. 88

International comparisons.............................................................................................. 89

Key economic indicators and forecasts, selected countries............... 89

Spending, savings, and trade as proportion of GDP,
 selected countries, 2007........................................................................ 90

ECONOMIC PROFILE.......................................................................................................... 91

Gross domestic product.................................................................................................... 91

Real growth and income levels and trends, 1961–2008..................... 91

Real total gross domestic product, 1961–2008.................................... 92

Real annual economic growth, 1961–2008.......................................... 93

Real GDP and personal disposable income per capita,
 1961–2008.............................................................................................. 93

Real GDP per head, 1965–2008.............................................................. 94

Gross national income per capita, selected countries, 2007............... 94

Income and rankings, selected countries, 2007.................................... 95

Gross national income per capita, 2007, using purchasing
 power parity, selected countries.......................................................... 96

GDP per capita average annual growth, 1990–2005.......................... 96

Structure of GDP........................................................................................................... 97

Breakdown of gross value added by industry (proportions),
 1951–2008.............................................................................................. 97

Breakdown of gross value added by industry, 1951 and 2008...... 100

Provincial and local economies................................................................................ 101

Provincial economies..................................................................................... 101

Gross domestic product (GDP) by province, 2006–2011................. 101

GDP per head by province, 1996–2008.............................................. 101

Regional GDP by province and industry (actual numbers),
 2007....................................................................................................... 102

Regional GDP by province and industry, 2007 (proportions).......... 103

Regional GDP and GDP growth, 2007................................................. 108

Average annual economic growth, 1996–2007................................. 108

Economic growth of urban areas................................................................ 109

Economic indicators for 19 major urban areas................................. 109

Inflation and interest rates............................................................................................ 111

Inflation and interest rates, 1976–2008.............................................. 111

Inflation rates, 1976–2008.................................................................... 112

Interest rates, 1976–2008...................................................................... 112

CPI headline, 2009.................................................................................. 113

Components of CPI, 2009..................................................................... 114

CPI by province and area, 2009........................................................... 114

Group and product inflation for all urban areas, 2009..................... 115

Repurchase (repo) rate, dates of change............................................. 117

Saving................................................................................................................................. 118

Personal saving, household debt, and gross domestic
 saving, 1960–2008.............................................................................. 118

Gross domestic saving, 1960–2008...................................................... 119

Investment......................................................................................................................... 120

Real gross fixed capital formation (GFCF), 1960–2008.................. 120

Investment (GFCF) as a proportion of GDP, 1960–2008................ 121

Annual increase/decrease in investment, 1960–2008...................... 122

Investment by type of investment, 1998–2008................................ 122

Investment by type of investment (proportions), 1998 and 2008. 123

Investment by type of investor, 1960–2008...................................... 123

Private investment as proportion of total investment,
 1960–2008........................................................................................... 125

GFCF by kind of economic activity, 1960–2008.............................. 126

Foreign investment..................................................................................................... 126

Inward investment............................................................................................... 126

Foreign liabilities (foreign investment in South Africa),
 1956–2005........................................................................................... 126

Foreign liabilities (foreign investment in South Africa),
 1996–2007........................................................................................... 127

Foreign direct investment inflows, 1994–2008.................................. 127

Foreign liabilities (foreign investment in South Africa)
 by region at 31 December 2007........................................................ 128

Foreign direct investment (FDI) in South Africa by kind of
 economic activity as a proportion of total foreign direct
 investment, 1997 and 2007............................................................... 129

Outward investment............................................................................................. 129

Foreign assets (South African investment in other
 countries), 1975–2007........................................................................ 129

South Africa’s foreign assets by region at 31 December 2007........ 130

International comparisons.................................................................................. 131

FDI flows (inward) as proportion of GFCF,
 selected countries, 2005–2007.......................................................... 131

FDI stock as proportion of GDP, selected countries, 1990–2007... 132

The exchange rate........................................................................................................... 133

The rand/euro and rand/pound exchange rate,
 1990–2008........................................................................................... 133

The value of the rand in euros and pounds, 1990–2008................. 133

The rand/dollar and real effective exchange rates, 1970–2008..... 134

The value of the rand in dollars, 1970–2008..................................... 135

Weighting of 13 currencies in the ‘basket’ against which
 the rand is measured........................................................................... 136

Trade.................................................................................................................................. 136

South Africa’s chief trading partners, 2008........................................ 136

South Africa’s trade with the world, 2008........................................... 137

Imports to South Africa, 2008 (proportions)...................................... 138

Exports from South Africa, 2008 (proportions)................................. 138

Structure of exports and imports, 1990–2008................................... 139

Exports from South Africa, 1990–2008 (proportions)..................... 140

Imports to South Africa, 1990–2008 (proportions).......................... 140

Growth in export and import value, 1990–2007............................... 141

Growth in real value of exports, 1960–2004...................................... 142

Exports of goods and services as a proportion of GDP,
 selected countries, 1995 and 2007................................................... 142

Average London gold price, 1946–2008............................................. 143

Brent crude oil and platinum prices, 1981–2008............................... 145

Oil price, 1981–2008............................................................................... 146

PUBLIC FINANCE................................................................................................................ 146

Revenue and taxation..................................................................................................... 146

All tax revenues........................................................................................................... 146

Total tax revenue, 2002/03–2007/08.................................................. 146

National revenues....................................................................................................... 147

Government finance as a proportion of GDP, 1976–2012.............. 147

Income tax as a proportion of GDP, 1976–2012.............................. 148

Composition of national tax revenue, selected years,
 1984/85–2009/10............................................................................... 148

Tax revenue by main source, 1994/95 and 2007/08........................ 149

Tax revenue by main source as proportion of GDP,
 1994/95 and 2007/08......................................................................... 149

Number of registered taxpayers, 2002/03–2007/08......................... 150

Maximum marginal tax rates, 2002/03–2007/08............................. 150

Individual taxpayers............................................................................................ 151

Number of taxpayers, 2002/03–2007/08........................................... 151

Summary of taxable income and tax assessed, 2002/03–
 2005/06................................................................................................. 151

Taxable income and tax assessed by income group
 (numbers), 2003 and 2006................................................................ 152

Taxable income and tax assessed by income group
 (proportions), 2003 and 2006........................................................... 153

Taxable income and tax assessed by age group, and sex,
 2003 and 2006..................................................................................... 154

Tax assessed by economic activity, 2003 and 2006........................ 155

Tax assessed by source of income (proportion of total),
 2003–2006........................................................................................... 156

Taxable income and tax assessed by province, 2003 and 2006.... 157

Corporate taxpayers............................................................................................ 158

Taxable income and tax assessed by sector and economic
 activity, 2003 and 2006..................................................................... 158

Tax assessments, 2002/03–2007/08................................................... 160

Provincial and local revenues................................................................................... 160

Provincial and local government tax revenue, 2002/03–2007/08. 160

International comparisons........................................................................................ 161

Top personal income tax rates, selected countries, 1980–2006..... 161

Tax revenue, 2007, and business tax, selected countries,
 2007 and 2008..................................................................................... 162

Marginal tax rate, selected countries, 2006–08................................. 163

Budget 2008/2009............................................................................................................ 164

Breakdown of consolidated national and provincial
 spending by function and proportion.............................................. 164

Changes in consolidated national and provincial
 spending by function over seven years........................................... 165

Breakdown of consolidated national and provincial
 spending as a proportion of total spending..................................... 166

Key allocations as proportions of the budget, 2005/06–2011/12.. 167

Major spending components................................................................. 167

Major spending components, 2005/06 and 2009/10
 (proportions)......................................................................................... 168

Public sector infrastructure expenditure and estimates,
 2005/06–2011/12............................................................................... 168

Key indicators and forecasts, 2005–11............................................... 169

Division of revenue between spheres of government,
 2008/09–2011/12............................................................................... 169

Deficit............................................................................................................................ 170

Budget deficit/surplus (actual and projected), 1995/96–2011/12. 170

Budget balance as a proportion of GDP, selected countries,
 2009....................................................................................................... 171

Public debt.................................................................................................................... 172

Total debt of government, 1982–2012............................................... 172

Foreign debt as proportion of GDP, 1982–2012................................ 173

Government debt as proportion of GDP, 1982–2012....................... 173

Provincial budgets........................................................................................................... 174

Consolidated budgets................................................................................................. 174

Summary of expenditure outcomes by province,
 2007/08–2008/09............................................................................... 174

Provincial own revenue collection, 2007/08–2008/09..................... 174

Provincial personnel expenditure, 2008/09......................................... 175

Provincial education expenditure, 2008/09........................................ 175

Provincial capital expenditure on education, 2008/09..................... 176

Provincial health expenditure, 2008/09............................................... 176

Provincial capital expenditure on health, 2008/09............................ 177

Provincial capital expenditure on health growth,
 2007/08–2008/09............................................................................... 177

Municipal finance............................................................................................................ 178

Financial results for all district municipalities........................................................ 178

Operating and capital revenue and expenditure by district
 municipality, 2006/07........................................................................ 178

Financial data for six metropolitan and two district municipalities.................. 180

Breakdown of financial outcomes, 2006/07...................................... 180

Income and expenditure, 2008/09–2009/10..................................... 181

Breakdown of capital revenue and expenditure, 2006/07.............. 183

Outstanding consumer debtors, as at 31 December 2006
 and 31 December 2007...................................................................... 184

Change in municipal debt, 2006–07.................................................... 184

Breakdown of total municipal debt by metro, 2006 and 2007...... 185

Financial data for the six metropolitans................................................................. 186

Breakdown of operating revenue, 2003/04–2009/10...................... 186

Breakdown of operating expenditure, 2003/04–2009/10............... 187

Metropolitans’ capital budgets, 2003/04–2009/10........................... 188

Summary of key revenue and expenditure trends,
 2003/04–2009/10............................................................................... 189

FORECASTS OF KEY ECONOMIC INDICATORS, 2010–13.................................. 190

Demographics

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DemographicsDEMOGRAPHICS AT A GLANCE....................................................................................... 7

Overview of key population estimates, 1985-2008............................... 7

POPULATION PROFILE........................................................................................................ 8

Breakdown by race and year, 1911–2021..................................................................... 8

Population by year and race, 1911–2021............................................... 8

Population by year and race, 1911 and 2009......................................... 8

Breakdown by race and year, 1992-2012...................................................................... 9

Population by year and race, 1992–2012............................................... 9

Breakdown by age, race, and sex, 2008........................................................................ 10

Population by age, race, and sex, 2008................................................. 10

Growth rate and forecasts by sex and race, 2001–21............................................... 14

Estimated annual population growth rates by sex,
 2001–08.................................................................................................. 14

Projected population by race, 2001 and 2021..................................... 14

Projected population by race, year by year, 2008–12........................ 15

Breakdown by race and sex............................................................................................. 15

Male/female population distribution by race, 2008............................ 15

Estimated annual population growth rates by race and
 sex, 2001–05.......................................................................................... 16

Breakdown by race and age............................................................................................ 17

Estimated age profile by race, 2008 (actual numbers)....................... 17

Estimated age profile by race, 2008 (proportions)............................... 17

Breakdown by province................................................................................................... 18

Population by province, 2008 mid–year estimates............................. 18

Population and growth by province, 2001 and 2008.......................... 18

Estimated annual population growth rates by province,
 2001–21.................................................................................................. 19

Breakdown by race and province.................................................................................. 20

Population by race and province (actual numbers),
 2001 and 2008....................................................................................... 20

Projected population by race and province, year by year,
 2008–12 (actual numbers)................................................................... 21

Projected population by race and province, year by year,
 2008–12 (proportions).......................................................................... 23

Projected population by race and province, change in
 number and percentage change, 2008–12........................................ 26

Population density............................................................................................................. 27

Population density by province, 2008.................................................... 27

Selected international comparisons of population density,
 2000 and 2007....................................................................................... 28

Breakdown by municipal area....................................................................................... 29

Geography and demographics of district and metropolitan
 municipalities, 2007.............................................................................. 29

Breakdown of district and metropolitan municipalities
 by race, sex, and age, 2007.................................................................. 31

Geographical distribution and urbanisation.............................................................. 35

Proportions of people living in urban areas by province
 and race, 1998, 2003, and 2008......................................................... 35

Population of 19 major cities by race, 1998–2008............................. 36

International comparisons.............................................................................. 39

Rural and urban populations as a proportion of total
 population, 1990 and 2007................................................................. 39

South African households................................................................................................ 40

Household numbers by race, 2001-2021.............................................. 40

Household numbers and proportions by province, 2008................... 40

Household numbers and proportions by district and
 metropolitan municipalities, 2007...................................................... 41

Households by size and composition, 2008.......................................... 43

South African families...................................................................................................... 43

Number and proportion of children by age, 2002–2007.................... 43

Number and proportion of child-headed households by
 province, 2002–2007............................................................................ 43

Number and proportion of double orphans by age,
 2002–2007.............................................................................................. 44

Number and proportion of double orphans by province,
 2002 and 2007....................................................................................... 44

Number of orphans, international comparisons, 2007....................... 45

Projections of AIDS orphans in South Africa, 2015............................ 46

Proportion of children living with parents by race
 and sex, 2001......................................................................................... 46

Proportion of urban parents that are single by
 race, 2007................................................................................................ 46

Breakdown of urban single parents by race, 2007.............................. 47

Number and proportion of single urban parents
 by age, 2007........................................................................................... 47

Urban single parents by race and employment status,
 2007 47

Urban single parents by race and sex, 2007.......................................... 47

Presence of fathers of children aged 15 years and younger,
 1993–2002.............................................................................................. 48

Presence of fathers of children aged 15 years and younger
 by race, 1993–2002.............................................................................. 48

Presence of fathers of African children aged 15 and
 younger, 1993–2002............................................................................. 49

Percentage of women who had given birth by age and
 number of children, 2001 .................................................................... 50

Percentage of women who had given birth by age, race,
 and marital status, 2001....................................................................... 50

Proportion of teenage pregnancies by province, 2003........................ 51

Percentage distribution of South African households by
 household type, 1996–2006................................................................ 51

Demographic indicators................................................................................................... 51

Fertility rate........................................................................................................ 51

Fertility rate by province, 2001–2006 and 2006–2011...................... 51

International fertility comparisons................................................................ 52

Fertility rate per woman, 2007................................................................. 52

Adolescent fertility rate (15–19 years old), 2007................................. 53

Births................................................................................................................... 54

Recorded live births by sex, 1991–2007................................................ 54

Birth forecasts, 2008–2012...................................................................... 55

Mortality............................................................................................................ 55

Deaths by province, 2008......................................................................... 55

Number of registered deaths, 1997–2006............................................. 56

Number of deaths by age and sex, 2006............................................... 56

International mortality comparisons............................................................ 57

Infant and under five mortality rate, 1990 and 2007......................... 57

Child and adult mortality rates by sex................................................... 59

Life expectancy................................................................................................ 60

Life expectancy by province and sex, 2001–2006 and
 2006–2011.............................................................................................. 60

Projected life expectancy at birth by province and race,
 2002, 2009, and 2012........................................................................... 60

International comparisons.............................................................................. 62

Life expectancy at birth, 1990 and 2007.............................................. 62

Survival to age 65 by sex (proportions), 2007...................................... 63

Impact of HIV/AIDS.......................................................................................................... 64

Estimated effects of HIV/AIDS on total population,
 2000–10.................................................................................................. 64

Estimated AIDS deaths by province, 2000–10.................................... 64

Estimated non-AIDS deaths by province, 2000–10............................ 65

Estimated effects of HIV/AIDS on provincial populations,
 2000–10.................................................................................................. 65

Religion................................................................................................................................ 68

Major religious affiliations in South Africa, 2001 (numbers
 and proportions)..................................................................................... 68

Changes in religious affiliation, 1980–2001......................................... 69

Language............................................................................................................................. 69

Breakdown of home languages, 2001................................................... 69

Human Development Index............................................................................................. 70

Human development trends, 1975–2005............................................. 70

South African human development index, 1975–2005..................... 71

Human development index of various countries, 2005..................... 72

MIGRATION............................................................................................................................. 73

International migration, 1940–2004...................................................... 73

Internal migration by province, 2001–06.............................................. 75