South Africa Survey Online 2009/2010

Living Conditions and Communications

SAS0910-Liv-1.jpgThe Living Conditions and Communications chapter challenges the widely held belief that service delivery in South Africa has failed. The chapter commences with a broad overview of living conditions in 2009 before providing an assessment of changes in living conditions over the past 13 years. Without exception both the number and the proportion of households with access to services have improved – often substantially. The chapter then reviews progress in land reform before providing specific and detailed data on access to clean water, sanitation services, housing, energy, and refuse removal. Much of this data is provided on a provincial basis and incorporates trends over time. Information is then provided on service delivery backlogs. The chapter further provides data on access to financial services, broadcasting services, postal services, telecommunications including internet access, and transport. The chapter’s 90 pages include the most concise and up to date information tracking South Africa’s progress in improving the living conditions of its people. It is essential material for planners in Government, civil society, and the private business sector.

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LIVING CONDITIONS AND COMMUNICATIONS

 

THE LIVING CONDITIONS PICTURE
South African living conditions at a glance 2009

OVERVIEW OF CHANGES                                                                           
Changes over thirteen years                                                          
Changes by household (actual numbers), 1996 and 2009         
Household and housing changes, 1996 and 2009 (actual numbers)
Household types and facilities by proportion, and changes in proportions, 1996 and 2009                                             

LAND REFORM                                                                                            

Land restitution
Land restitution claims and settlements by province, 1995–2009
Restitution claims settled/to be settled, 2009
Outstanding restitution claims by province as at March 2009  

Land redistribution
Land Redistribution for Agricultural Development (LRAD)
 under the Land and Agrarian Reform Programme (LARP):
 delivery figures and targets by province, 2008/09
Land redistribution progress as at March 2009
Land redistribution progress by province as at March 2009
Number of outstanding hectares to be distributed by province as at March 2009
The 30% land-redistribution-by-2025 scenario
Total estimated funding required and funding at current baseline for land redistribution, 2008/09–2024/25                

Land tenure reform                                                                               

WATER AND SANITATION                                                                         

Water
Free basic water
Delivery of free basic water by province by 31 March 2010
Households with access to free basic water 2001/02–2008/09
Proportion of households with access to free basic water, 2001/02–2008/09
All water
National data
Household water sources by race, 2009 (actual numbers)
Household water sources by race, 2009 (proportions)
Change in household water sources by race 1996–2009 (actual numbers)
Household access to potable water, 1993/94–2008/09
Households without water in the dwelling or on site by race and distance travelled to nearest water source, 2009
Households with piped water in dwelling by race and location of African households, 1998 and 2006
Provincial data
Access to piped water by province, 1996 and 2009 (actual numbers)
Access to piped water by province, 1996 and 2009 (proportions)
Selected water indicators by province, 2009 (proportions)
Water interruptions
Households that experienced water interruptions by province, 2009
Water quality
Drinking water quality management systems assessed, 2009 and 2010
National municipal blue drop performance, 2010
National top 10 blue drop performers, 2010
Water services authorities not assessed, 2010
International comparisons
Urban and rural populations with access to improved water source, selected countries, 2006                                           

Sanitation
National data
Household sanitation facility by race, 2009 (actual numbers)
Household sanitation facility by race, 2009 (proportions)
Change in household sanitation facility by race 1996–2009 (actual numbers)
Households with and without access to sanitation, 1993/94–2008/09
Households with flush toilet in dwelling by race and location of African households, 1998 and 2006
Provincial data
Selected sanitation indicators by province, 2009 (actual numbers)
Selected sanitation indicators by province, 2009 (proportions)
Waste water quality
Provincial risk profiles of waste water treatment plants, 2009
Waste water quality management systems assessment, 2009
National municipal green drop performance, 2009
Green drop status awards, 2009
International comparisons
Population with access to improved sanitation facilities, selected countries, 2006                                                       

HOUSING                                                                                                     

Housing types
National data
Detailed breakdown
Households by type of dwelling and race, 1996 and 2009 (actual numbers)
Households by type of dwelling and race, 1996 and 2009 (proportions)
Summary of changes
Types of housing occupied, 1996 and 2009
Types of housing occupied, 1996
Types of housing occupied, 2009
Changes in housing types, 1996–2009 (actual numbers)
Urban/rural breakdown
Households residing in formal housing by race and location of African households, 1998 and 2006
Backyard structures
Changes in the number of all backyard stuctures, 1996 and 2009 (actual numbers)
Changes in the number of all backyard stuctures, 1996 and 2009 (proportions)
Breakdown of backyard structures, 1996
Breakdown of backyard structures, 2009
Provincial data
All housing
Types of housing by province, 1996 and 2009 (actual numbers)
Types of housing by province, 1996 and 2009 (proportions)
Change in types of housing by province, 1996-2009 (actual numbers)
Change in types of housing by province, 1996–2009 (proportions)
Informal dwellings
Households residing in informal dwellings by province, 1996 and 2009 (actual numbers)
Households residing in informal dwellings by province, 1996 and 2009 (proportions)
Services available to informal dwellings, 2009
Municipal data
Types of housing by municipality, 2009

Terms of occupation
National data
All housing types
Household tenure status by race and sex, 2009 (actual numbers)
Household tenure status by race and sex, 2009 (proportions)
Household tenure status by race, 2009
Household tenure status by sex, 2009
Formal housing
Household tenure status of people residing in formal dwellings, 2009 (actual numbers)
Household tenure status of people residing in formal dwellings, 2009 (proportions)
Provincial data
Household tenure status by province, 2009 (actual numbers)
Household tenure status by province, 2009 (proportions)
Municipal data
Tenure status by municipality, 2009
International data
Household size and housing ownership, selected countries

Housing provision
Housing backlog
Annual housing backlog figures, 1996/97–2008/09
New deadline for eradicating housing backlog
National affordable housing needs, 2003–2010
Government and private sector housing
Private sector and government housing construction, 1997/98–2008/09
Government subsidy housing
Houses completed or under construction by province, April 1994-March 2009
Qualifying criteria for government subsidy housing
Planned units and units completed/in progress, 1994/95–2008/09
RDP/state subsidised housing indicators by province, 2009
Investigations, arrests, and convictions in housing subsidy fraud cases as at August 2010
Private sector housing
Residential buildings completed by the private sector by size, 2003–2009

DOMESTIC ENERGY

Sources of energy
Household sources of energy by race, 2009 (actual numbers and proportions)

Electrification
Electricity use by sector
Households without electricity and households added to the national grid, 1994/95–2007/08
Households using electricity for lighting by race and location of African households, 1998 and 2006
Households using electricity or gas for cooking by race and location of African households, 1998 and 2006
Proportion of households with and without electricity by province, 2009
Electricity for lighting, cooking, and heating by province, 2009 (proportions)

REFUSE DISPOSAL
Household refuse disposal by race, 2009 (actual numbers)
Household refuse disposal by race, 2009 (proportions)
Proportion of households whose refuse is removed by municipalities by province, 2002 and 2009 (proportions)

BACKLOGS AND BASIC SERVICES
Backlogs by province, 2009
Provincial breakdown of consumer units receiving free basic services from municipalities, June 2009
Services available to informal dwellings, 2009

MUNICIPAL LIVING CONDITIONS
Living conditions indicators by municipality, 2009

FINANCIAL SERVICES
Number of banked and unbanked adults by income source, 2008
Proportion of each race with bank accounts, 2008
Banking products used by race, 2007
Breakdown of clients by bank, 2008

COMMUNICATIONS

Broadcasting
Households with television sets and radios, 2002–08
Top ten commercial radio stations by listenership, March 2009

Postal services
Postal services by race, 2007 (actual numbers)
Postal services by race, 2007 (proportions)
Households with and without postal facilities by province, 2007                                                                                   

Telecommunications
Telephones
Breakdown of households by landline access and race, 2009 (actual numbers)
Breakdown of households by landline access and race, 2009 (proportions)
Breakdown of households by cellular phone access and race, 2009 (actual numbers)
Breakdown of households by cellular phone access and race, 2009 (proportions)
Households with a landline telephone in dwelling or cellular phone by race and location of African households, 1998 and 2006
Access to all telephones by province, 2009
Access to fixed line and cellular telephones, selected countries, 2008
The internet
Internet usage by race, June 2010 (proportions)
Internet access by province, 2009
Internet users per 100 people, selected African countries, 2008
Internet users, selected countries, 2008
Information Communication Technology (ICT) uptake per 100 people, 2008
ICT uptake per 100 people 2008
Communications by municipality
Access to communication services by municipality, 2009

Transportation
Public transport
Proportion of commuters by mode of transport, 2008
Vehicle statistics
Registered vehicles by province, March 2007 and September 2009
Motorised vehicles registered by year-end, December 1999–September 2009
Road accidents
Number of fatal crashes and fatalities by province, 2006/07 and 2008/09
Number of fatalities per type of vehicle, 2008/09
Number of fatalities per road user group by province, 2008/09                                                                              

Education

Education-2009,2010-(Web)-(15.jpgThe Education chapter provides a comprehensive overview of the South African education sector. The chapter commences with a financial overview, with short- and medium-term trends being presented. International comparisons of educational spending are provided.

A qualification profile of the South African population is given. This is followed by detailed data on literacy and numeracy. A thorough overview of enrolment trends is then provided, from early childhood development up to enrolment of people older than 18. Ten-year trends for enrolment at public and independent schools are also provided, including a racial breakdown. The growth of the independent sector is highlighted.

A comprehensive profile of teachers is given, with information on the number of teachers, their level of qualification, and the numbers of students who graduate with teaching qualifications each year.

This is followed by a detailed section on the output of the South African education sector. This ranges from matric examination results, to the output of further education and training colleges, to the number of apprentices being trained. Matric results by race are also provided, and the performance of Africans in matric, going back to 1955, is also given.

A comprehensive section on public higher education is also provided. Enrolment by race at South African universities since 1995 is provided, as is information on awards made by universities. A comparison of degrees awarded in 1991 and 2008 by race is provided. This shows how the higher education sector in the country has been racially transformed. Information on throughput rates of the South African tertiary sector is also provided. The chapter concludes with information on private higher education.

The Survey is the only journal which provides such a comprehensive overview of the South African education sector in one accessible document. It is invaluable for any decision-maker and strategist, as well as anyone interested or involved in South African education.

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EDUCATION

 

EDUCATION AT A GLANCE                                                                        

Education at a glance                                                             

FINANCE                                                                                                     

Education spending                                                                       

All public spending                                                                   

Consolidated spending on education, 2009/10–2012/13           

Public education expenditure as a proportion of total government expenditure, 1996/97–2006/07                          

Public total education and school expenditure as a proportion of GDP, 1995/96–2006/07                                                    

Spending on school education                                                  

Spending per pupil by province, 2008/09                                

Change in spending per pupil by province, 2000/01–2008/09                                                                

Change in real spending per pupil in ordinary public schools, by province, 2000–2007                                                       

University spending                                                                  

State spending on universities, 1999 and 2009                        

State budget allocation according to institution and spending per university student, 2009                                                

International comparisons                                                            

Public expenditure on education as a proportion of total government expenditure, and of GDP, selected countries, 2008                                                                                   

qualification profile of the population                                    

National Qualifications Framework (NQF)                                            

Levels of education in South Africa                                        

Level of education                                                                                 

National statistics                                                                              

No schooling                                                                                 

Adults without education by race                                             

Persons aged 20 and older, with no schooling by race 1999 and 2009 (numbers)                                                    

Persons aged 20 and older with no schooling by race, 1999 and 2009 (proportions)                                                        

School education                                                                           

Adults who have completed grade 9 by race                            

Persons aged 20 and older who have completed grade 9 by race, 1999 and 2009 (numbers)                                        

Persons aged 20 and older who have completed grade 9 by race, 1999 and 2009 (proportions)                                   

Adults who have completed grade 12 by race                          

Persons aged 20 and older who have completed grade 12 by race, 1999 and 2009 (numbers)                                        

Persons aged 20 and older who have completed grade 12 by race, 1999 and 2009 (proportions)                                   

Post-school education                                                                   

Adults who have completed post-school education by race                                                                                   

Persons aged 20 and older, who have completed post-school education by race, 1999 and 2009 (numbers)                        

Persons aged 20 and older who have completed post-school education by race, 1999 and 2009 (proportions)                    

Literacy and numeracy                                                                  

Children                                                                                    

Grade 3 literacy by province, 2001 and 2007                            

Grade 3 numeracy by province, 2001 and 2007                        

Persons aged 15 and older                                                        

Persons aged 15 and older who can write their own name by race, 2009, numbers and proportions                               

Persons aged 15 and older who can read, by race, 2009, numbers and proportions                                                    

Persons aged 15 and older who are numerate, by race, 2009, numbers and proportions                                                    

International comparisons                                                        

Adult literacy, selected countries, 2007                                   

Youth literacy rate by sex, selected countries, 2005–2007         

Provincial and local statistics                                                             

Educational attendance                                                                   

Attendance                                                                                         

Breakdown by age                                                                     

Proportion of population aged between 4 and 6 attending an educational institution, 2002–2007                                      

Proportion of population aged between 7 and 15 attending an educational institution, 2002–2008                                      

Proportion of population aged between 7 and 15 attending an educational institution by sex, 2002–2007                       

Proportion of population aged between 16 and 18 attending an educational institution by sex, 2002–2007                       

Proportion of people aged between 5 and 24 attending an educational institution, 2002–2008                                 

Breakdown by institution                                                          

Population attending an educational institution, by type of institution, 2008                                                                 

Population attending an educational institution, by type of institution and race, 2008                                                   

Proportion of provincial population attending an educational institution by province, 2008                                               

Breakdown by fee payment                                                       

Proportion of people attending an educational institution that pay annual tuition fees, 2002–2008                                      

Non-attendance                                                                                  

Proportion of out–of–school children in the population aged between 14 and 18, 2002 and 2006                                       

PRE-PRIMARY, primary, AND SECONDARY SCHOOLING                       

Enrolment                                                                                              

Early Childhood Development Centres (ECDs)                                    

Attendance at early childhood education sites by province, and race, 2000                                                                    

Population aged between 0 and 4 attending an Early Childhood Development (ECD) centre, by race, 2009 (numbers and proportions)                                                  

Population aged between 0 and 4 attending an Early Childhood Development (ECD) centre, by province, 2009                        

Gross enrolment rate (GER) at early childhood development sites, 2002–2007                                                                  

Grade R                                                                                              

Enrolment by sex in grade R at sites attached to independent and public schools, 1999–2007                                             

Primary schools                                                                                 

Gross enrolment rate (GER) at primary school level 1985, 1991, 1995, 1997–2007                                                

Net enrolment rate (NER) of children aged between 7 and 13, 1997–2005                                                            

Secondary schools                                                                             

Gross enrolment rate (GER) at secondary school level, 1985, 1991, 1995, 1997–2007                                                         

Net enrolment rate (NER) of children aged between 14 and 18, 1997–2005                                                              

All schools                                                                                         

Enrolment by grade at ordinary public and independent schools, 1999 and 2009                                                       

School enrolment, 2007                                                          

Provincial distribution of pupils by poverty quintile, 2008       

Pupils at independent and public schools by province, 2000 to 2009                                                                       

Resources                                                                                               

Public schools                                                                                    

Number of public schools                                                        

Public schools by province, 1999 and 2009                              

Dinaledi schools                                                                       

Number of Dinaledi schools by province, 2002–2008                

Former Model C schools                                                           

Number of former Model C schools in South Africa, 2009         

Pupils and teachers                                                                   

Pupils and teachers at public schools by province, 2009

Pupils and teachers at public schools, 2003 and 2009              

Pupils                                                                                        

Number of pupils in ordinary schools, by province and race, 2008                                                                                   

Number of pupils in ordinary schools, by home language and province, 2008                                                                    

Number of pupils in ordinary schools, by preference of the pupil’s language of learning and teaching and province, 2008                                                                                   

Number of no-fee schools, and of pupils attending no-fee schools, 2009                                                                      

Pupils at farm schools by province, 1996 and 2000                  

Pupils in receipt of social grants by province, 2007 and 2008                                                                    

Teachers                                                                                        

Teachers employed by School Governing Bodies (SGBs)           

Number of teachers employed by school governing bodies, 1997, 2004, 2007-2009                                                         

Teacher qualifications                                                              

The qualification profile of teachers in public schools, 2005    

Proportion of teachers that are qualified by race: 1990, 1994, 2005–2008                                                                          

Proportion of teachers that are qualified: 1990, 1994, 2005–2008                                                                          

Qualified mathematics and physical science teachers by province, 2008                                                                    

Teacher intake                                                                          

First-time registrations in teaching at tertiary institution 2005–2008                                                                          

Number of new graduates entering teaching, 2005–2008          

Teacher vacancies                                                                    

Vacancies by province, 2008                                                   

Teaching appointments                                                            

Teaching appointments, 2009                                                 

Temporary teachers                                                                 

Number of temporary teachers by province at January 2010     

Facilities and amenities                                                                 

Safety in schools                                                                           

Discipline in schools                                                                     

Expulsions by province, 2008 and 2009                                   

Pregnancy in schools                                                                     

Number of pupils who got pregnant in ordinary schools, by province and grade, 2007                                                    

Independent schools                                                                          

Independent schools by province, 1999, 2003, and 2009           

Pupils and teachers at independent schools by province, 2009                                                                                   

Pupils at independent schools by race and province, 2003–2008                                                                          

Changes in schools                                                                            

All schools and pupils                                                                   

Schools                                                                                     

Pupils                                                                                        

School examinations and output                                                          

Public examinations                                                                           

Definitions                                                                                

National Senior Certificate Grade 12, also known as Matric      

Overall results                                                                          

Senior certificate examination results, 1980–2007: old curriculum                                                                    

National senior certificate examination results: 2008 and 2009 — new curriculum                                                       

Results by province                                                                  

Senior certificate examination results by province, 1994, 1998, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, and 2007: old curriculum         

Results by race and province                                                    

Matric pass rate by race and province, 2009                            

African results, 1955–2009                                                      

African results, 1955–2009                                                      

Subject results                                                                          

Results in selected senior certificate examination subjects, 1999–2007: old curriculum                                                   

Subject results: new curriculum: 15 selected subjects, 2009                                                                                   

National senior certificate results: technical subjects, 2009                                                                                   

National senior certificate examination results: languages, 2009                                                                                   

Mathematics results in Dinaledi and other schools, 2008         

Physical science results in Dinaledi and other schools, 2008    

South Africa’s top schools                                                        

Results in South Africa’s Top 100 schools, 2008                      

The poorest schools that achieved pass rates of 100%, 2009     

Matric results by race and type of school, 2009                       

Matric pass rates by race and type of school, 2009                   

Matric passes by race and type of school, 2009 (numbers)        

Matric passes by race and type of school, 2009 (proportions by type of school)                                                               

Matric passes by race and type of school, 2009 (proportions by race)                                                                              

Matric pass rates by race and type of school, 2009                   

Throughput                                                                                        

Throughput, 2007–2009                                                          

Drop-out rate by grade, 1997–2003                                          

Completion rates, 1995, 1997, 1999, 2001–2007                        

Independent examinations board                                                       

Examination results                                                                  

Independent Examinations Board senior certificate examination results, 1994–2009                                           

International schooling comparisons                                                   

The quality of schooling                                                           

Reading achievement, grade 4, 2006                                        

The school system, 2008                                                         

School enrolment                                                                      

School enrolment rates, selected countries, 2007                      

OTHER EDUCATION                                                                                   

Further education and training (FET)                                                   

Further education and training colleges                                   

Enrolments for NC (V) levels by province, 2009                        

NC (V) results per programme, 2009                                        

Further education and training colleges by province, 2009       

FET colleges in South Africa, 2009                                          

Vocational training and apprentices                                                     

Pupils who took trade tests through Indlela, 2006/07–2008/09                                                                

Number of apprentices that entered apprenticeship training through apprenticeship contracts with Sector Education and Training Authorities (Setas), 2006/07–2008/09                     

Nursing                                                                                                  

Output of nurses, private and public institutions, 2000–09      

Agricultural colleges                                                                              

Enrolments for diplomas, higher certificates, and degrees by race and sex at colleges of agriculture, 2006                         

Enrolments by programme at colleges of agriculture in 2006                                                                                   

PUBLIC HIGHER EDUCATION                                                                     

Enrolment                                                                                              

Higher education participation rate                                          

Higher education participation rates by race, 2007                  

First year enrolment                                                                 

Number of undergraduate students enrolling for their first year of study, 2004–2008                                                     

South African universities                                                        

Tertiary enrolment                                                                   

University and university of technology enrolment, 1985–2008                                                                          

Head-count enrolment at universities and universities of technology by race, 1995–2008 (numbers)                             

Head-count enrolment at universities and universities of technology by race, 1995–2008 (proportions)                        

Head-count enrolment at universities and universities of technology by race, 1995 and 2008 (proportions)                  

University head-count, by race, 1999–2008 (numbers)               

University head-count, by race, 1999 and 2008 (numbers)        

University head-count, by race, 1999–2008 (proportions)          

University head-count, by race, 1999 and 2008 (proportions)                                                                      

University of technology head-count, by race, 1999–2008 (numbers)                                                                           

University of technology head-count by race, 1999 and 2008 (numbers)                                                                   

University of technology head-count, by race, 1999–2008 (proportions)                                                                      

University of technology head-count, by race, 1999 and 2008 (proportions)                                                                      

Staff                                                                                                        

University staff and students                                                    

Students, staff, and ratio of students to staff, 2008                                                                                   

Output                                                                                                    

Publications                                                                                   

Publications by university                                                         

Publications of articles, books, and conference proceedings, 2008                                                                                   

All tertiary awards, 1996, 2006, and 2008                                     

Degrees, diplomas, and certificates awarded by universities and universities of technology by field of study, 1996, 2006, and 2008                                                                   

Degrees                                                                                         

University and university of technology awards by race and subject, 1991 and 2008 (numbers): degrees                     

University and university of technology awards by race and subject, 1991 and 2008 (vertical proportions): degrees           

University and university of technology awards by race and subject, 1991 and 2008 (horizontal proportions): degrees      

Degrees awarded by institution and race, 2008 (numbers)        

Degrees awarded by institution and race, 2008 (proportions)                                                                      

Output of universities and universities of technology, 2008     

Proportion of graduates in science, engineering, and technology (SET) in higher education, 1994–2007                  

Throughput                                                                                           

First-year passes                                                                       

Proportion of first year students passing their first year, 2004–2008                                                                          

Tertiary throughput rate, 2002                                                 

Tertiary throughput rate, first-year class of 2002                     

Interim tests                                                                                           

National Benchmark Tests Project, academic literacy                

National Benchmark Tests Project, quantitative literacy           

National Benchmark Tests Project, mathematics                      

Private HIGHER EDUCATION                                                                  

Private higher education institutions                                        

Private Higher Education, 2009, officially registered private higher education institutions (includes provisionally registered institutions)                                                        

Private higher education institutions in South Africa, 2009     

WORK AND EDUCATION                                                                            

Education and employment                                                       

Employment by highest level of education, 2009 and 2010 (numbers)                                                                           

Employment by highest level of education, 2009 and 2010 (proportions)                                                                      

Education and unemployment                                                   

Unemployment by highest level of education, 2009 and 2010 (numbers)                                                                           

Unemployment by highest level of education, 2009 and 2010 (proportions)                                                                      

INTERNATIONAL COMPARISONS                                                              

UNDP Education Index, 2009                                                  

Politics and Government

Politics-and-Government-2010-(Web)-(Smaller)-1.jpgThe chapter provides a detailed overview of the South African political situation, ranging from the composition of Parliament to international rankings of South African governance.

The chapter commences with a breakdown of party representation in Parliament. A breakdown of party representation is also given for each of the nine provincial legislatures.

Information is then given for party representation in local authorities. An analysis of by-election results since the last local government poll in 2006 is also provided. This allows readers to see the trend of how the African National Congress (ANC) is retaining much of its support, but has lost a significant number of by-elections. The official opposition, the Democratic Alliance (DA), also managed to retain its support, as well as gain a number of municipal seats through by-elections.

The chapter also shows that there has been a significant increase in the number of women serving as members of Parliament or of provincial legislatures.

There is also information on the number of protests in South Africa, both violent and peaceful.

This is followed by an analysis of key trends in South African politics, ranging from corruption to foreign affairs to the activities of opposition parties.

The Institute’s own Rainbow Index is also provided, which is a scorecard of South African democracy. It shows that more vigilance is needed. The chapter concludes with international comparisons. These include the World Bank’s Governance Indicators, global rankings of freedom from Freedom House, and South Africa’s rating for press freedom from Reporters without Borders.

The chapter allows readers to gain a firm grasp of the current South African political environment.

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POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT

 

POLITICS AT A GLANCE                                                                             

Party representation                                                                   

THE STATE OF PLAY IN 2010                                                                     

Parliament                                                                                              

The National Assembly                                                                      

The state of play in the National Assembly after the 2009 national election                                                                         

Proportional representation and seats held by party after the 2009 national election

Representation in the National Assembly by party after the 2009 national election                                                                     

The National Council of Provinces                                                     

Seats held in the National Council of Provinces after the 2009 provincial elections                                                           

Number of delegates to the National Council of Provinces after the 2009 provincial elections                                                    

Representation in the National Council of Provinces after the 2009 provincial elections                                                         

Provincial legislatures                                                                           

The state of play in provincial legislatures following the 2009 provincial elections                                                           

Seats in provincial legislatures after the 2009 provincial elections                                                                                 

Overall representation in the nine provincial legislatures after the 2009 provincial elections                                                        

Local authorities                                                                                    

Party representation                                                                      

Votes by party, 2006                                                                   

Seats by party                                                                            

Representation in the six metropolitan municipalities in 2009      

By-elections                                                                                   

By-election results since the 2006 local government elections        

Control of councils                                                                        

Councils controlled by party, 2000–2009                                      

Municipal audits                                                                            

Municipal audit reports, 2007/08 and 2008/09                             

Results of the national election in selected municipalities, 2009                                                                                           

VOTING TRENDS                                                                                        

Voter turnout in national and provincial elections, 1994–2009          

Voting trends                                                                                         

CHANGES IN PARTY REPRESENTATION 1994–2009                                 

REPRESENTATION OF WOMEN                                                                  

Female members of the National Assembly, 1994–2009                 

Female members of provincial legislatures, 1994–2009                  

Female members of local government councils, 2000–2006            

POLITICAL AND GOVERNMENTAL MATTERS                                           

The ruling party                                                                                    

African National Congress (ANC)                                                  

The ANC Youth League                                                             

Governmental matters                                                                           

The Cabinet                                                                                   

Foreign relations                                                                           

Zimbabwe                                                                                 

Elections                                                                                                 

Timing and coalitions                                                                    

Opposition parties                                                                                 

Congress of the People (Cope)                                                       

Democratic Alliance (DA)                                                              

Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP)                                                           

Media                                                                                                      

Proposed restrictions                                                                    

New newspaper                                                                             

Corruption and wastage                                                                        

South African Airways (SAA)                                                         

Government                                                                                   

The Companies and Intellectual Property Registration Office (Cipro)                                                                              

Race relations and xenophobia                                                             

Race relations                                                                                

Xenophobia                                                                                   

Protests                                                                                                  

‘Service delivery’ protests                                                              

Number of peaceful and violent gatherings, 2007–08 and 2008–09                                                                                  

THE RAINBOW INDEX                                                                                 

The Rainbow Index, 2009                                                            

INTERNATIONAL COMPARISONS                                                              

World Bank Governance Indicators Report, 2008                           

Freedom in the world, 2010 (selected countries)                           

Press freedom in the world, 2009 (selected countries)                   

Health and Welfare

The Health and Welfare chapter provides a detailed report on trends for South Africa together with selected international comparisons. The health section contains indicators on a number of diseases such as diarrhoea, malaria, and measles.

health2010.jpg The section on tuberculosis, which is the leading cause of death in South Africa, provides comprehensive information. Data on HIV/AIDS covers historical as well as projected prevalence. The section on medical personnel provides data on medical graduates, vacancy rates, and available medical personnel as well as the uptake by race of medical aid membership. Information on both private and public hospitals is also included. Statistics on blood transfusions, organ transplants, and circumcision are some of the additions to the chapter. The welfare section gives a breakdown of the welfare budget as well as all the types of social grants, their values, and the rapid growth in the number of beneficiaries over recent years.

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HEALTH AND WELFARE

 

THE HEALTH AND WELFARE PICTURE                                                      

Health and welfare at a glance                                               

HEALTH INDICATORS                                                                                

Mortality                                                                                                 

Infant and under-five mortality                                                          

Infant mortality rate by province, 1994, 1998, 2002, 2007, 2008, and 2009

Under-five mortality rate by province, 1994, 1998, 2002, 2007, 2008, and 2009                                                                   

Under-five mortality rate, selected countries, 1970, 1990, 2005, and 2007                                                                   

Maternal mortality                                                                              

Maternal mortality rate, 1990-2005                                          

Unnecessary deaths of mothers, 2005–07                                 

Unnecessary deaths of mothers                                              

Still birth rate by province, 2003/04–2008/09                          

Still birth rate by district municipality, 2003/04–2008/09        

Causes of death                                                                                  

Leading causes of death, 2004, 2005, 2006, and 2007               

Causes of death by race, 2007                                                 

Causes of death: all races, 2007                                              

Death by age and year of death                                                          

Deaths by age and year of death, 1997–2007                           

Termination of pregnancy                                                                  

Termination of pregnancy by province, 1997–2007                   

Termination of pregnancy by age, 2001–2006                          

Nutrition                                                                                                 

Severe malnutrition among under fives, 2001–08                     

Severe malnutrition among under fives by province, 2001–06                                                                              

Household food adequacy by province, 2009                           

Diseases                                                                                                  

Diarrhoea                                                                                           

Diarrhoea incidence among under fives by province and municipality, 2001–07/08                                                    

Malaria                                                                                               

Malaria cases and deaths, 1971–2007                                      

Malaria deaths, 1971, 1998, 2000, 2002, 2004, 2005, 2006, and 2007                                                                            

Measles                                                                                              

Suspected measles cases, by province, 2007 and 2008              

Occupational diseases                                                                        

Occupational diseases claims finalised                                   

Tuberculosis (TB)                                                                               

TB cases and pulmonary TB cases reported, 1995–2007            

Total TB cases, 1995-2007                                                       

TB treatment rate, 1994–2008                                                  

Reported TB deaths by province, 2006–08                                

Incidence of TB, selected countries, 2005                                 

HIV and AIDS                                                                                         

Current data                                                                                       

Population segments living with HIV/AIDS                                    

South African population as a proportion of world population, 2007                                                                

South African HIV/AIDS cases as a proportion of world HIV/AIDS cases                                                                   

Snap-shot of population living with HIV/AIDS by province, 1 July 2010 (actual numbers)                                               

Snap-shot of people living with HIV/AIDS by province, 1 July 2010 (proportions)                                                     

Historical trends                                                                                

All infections                                                                                 

New HIV infections by year, 1999–2009                                    

Adult infection                                                                              

Estimated adult HIV-prevalence rates by population group, 1991–2009                                                                          

Female infection                                                                            

HIV infection rates of women attending public antenatal clinics, 1992–2008                                                               

HIV infection rates of women attending public antenatal clinics by province, 1992–2008                                             

HIV infection rates of women attending public antenatal clinics by province, 2008                                                     

HIV infection rates of women attending public antenatal clinics by age, 1997–2008                                                     

Projected prevalence rates                                                                 

HIV prevalence rate by province, 2002, 2009, and 2015             

Estimated HIV prevalence rates, 2002–15                                 

Estimated number of persons in need for ART and persons receiving ART, 2005–10                                                        

ART recipients, by province, 2010–11                                      

International comparisons                                                                 

Regional HIV/AIDS statistics, 2003, 2005, 2007, and 2008         

HIV prevalence among young (male and female) people (aged15-49), selected countries, 2007                                    

HEALTH RESOURCES AND SERVICES                                                         

Finance                                                                                                   

National health budget allocations, 2011/12-2012/13              

Provincial health budget allocations, 2011/12                         

Consolidated national and provincial spending, 1994/95–2012/13                                                                              

Health expenditure, selected countries, 2006                           

Medical insurance                                                                                  

Medical aid beneficiaries by province, 2004–2008                     

Beneficiaries by province as a proportion of provincial population, 2008                                                                 

Beneficiaries of medical aid schemes, 1997–2008                      

Medical aid coverage by province and race, 2009                     

Medical aid coverage by race, 2009                                          

National Health Insurance (NHI)                                                            

Medical personnel                                                                                  

University health science awards by race, 2001–2006               

University health science awards, 2001–2006                           

Number of medical graduates by institution, 2004–08              

Registered health care personnel, 1990–2008                           

Number of medical personnel vacancies by province, 2009       

Number of public sector doctors by province, 2000–08             

Number of public sector professional nurses by province, 2000–08                                                                              

Public sector people-to-doctor and people-to-nurse ratio, 2008                                                                                   

Output of nurses, private and public, 2000-09                         

Number of completed nurse training courses, 2009                  

Government nursing colleges by province, 2009                       

Physicians per 1 000 people, selected countries, 2003–08          

Hospitals                                                                                                

Statistical information                                                                        

Bed utilisation rate, 2008/09                                                   

Number of beds in public and private sector hospitals by province, 2008 and 2009                                                      

Proportions of hospitals, private and public sectors, 2008 and 2009                                                                            

Number of hospitals in each province, 2008 and 2009              

Number of hospital beds per 1 000 people, selected countries, 2003-2008                                                                           

Vaccination                                                                                            

Immunisation coverage of children under one year, 2000–08                                                                              

Rates of immunisation and TB treatment, selected countries    

Blood transfusion                                                                                  

Blood donation by race, 2006–09                                             

Organ transplants                                                                                  

Number of organ transplants, 2004–08                                    

Circumcisions                                                                                        

Male circumcision by province, 2003                                       

Male circumcision by race, 2003                                              

Condom use                                                                                           

Condom use among adults (proportions, 2002, 2005, and 2008                                                                            

WELFARE                                                                                                     

Welfare budget                                                                                       

National welfare budget allocations, 2010/11–2012/13             

Welfare personnel and services                                                            

Population to social worker ratio by province, 2009                 

Social grants                                                                                           

Beneficiaries of social grants, 2001, 2006/07, 2007/08, 2008/09, 2009/10, 2010/11, 2011/12, and 2012/13                

Number of beneficiaries, 2001, 2006/07, 2007/08, 2008/09, 2009/10, 2010/11, and 2011/12                                            

Old age grants and rates of inflation, 1994–2009                     

Increase in value of social grants, April 2006–April 2010          

Growth in child support grant recipient numbers and payments, October 1998–May 2008                                       

Beneficiaries of social grants by province and municipality, 2007                                                              

Provincial breakdown of consumer units receiving free basic services from municipalities, June 2009                                

The Economy

Economy2010.jpgThe Economic chapter in the South African Survey 2009/2010 features 99 pages of in-depth economic research into the country. It includes the macro-economic position of the country with key international comparisons as well as a very detailed economic profile of the country. A review of South Africa’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) includes a breakdown of real growth and income level trends from 1961-2009, gross national income per capita for 2008 using purchasing power parity, a breakdown of industry by gross value added, and a look at provincial and local economies. Data is presented inflation trends and components from 1976 to 2009 including data by province and area. The chapter further includes statistics on saving, investment, the exchange rate, and trade including imports, exports and their composition. The public finance section of the chapter includes the total tax revenue for years 2003-2009, taxable income and tax assessed by age group, and sex, as well as by source of income and by province. A breakdown of the budget for 2009/2010 in terms of national and provincial spending, budget deficit and balance of payments as a proportion of GDP and public debt is also contained within the chapter. On a smaller scale, provincial budgets and municipal finance are included.

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THE ECONOMY

MACRO-ECONOMIC PICTURE
South Africa at a glance

LEADING INDICATORS
Local indicators
Major indicators, 1955–2009
Current account surplus/deficit as proportion of GDP, 1955–2009
Further major indicators, 1993–2010
Key indicators and forecasts, 2007–13

International comparisons
Key economic indicators and forecasts, selected countries
Spending, savings, and trade as proportion of GDP, selected countries, 2008

ECONOMIC PROFILE
Gross domestic product
Real growth and income levels and trends, 1961–2009
Real total gross domestic product, 1961–2009
Real annual economic growth, 1961–2009
Real GDP and personal disposable income per capita, 1961–2009
Real GDP per head, 1965–2012
Gross national income per capita, selected countries, 2008
Income and rankings, selected countries, 2008
Gross national income per capita, 2008, using purchasing power parity, selected countries
GDP per capita average annual growth, selected countries, 1970–2008
Structure of GDP
Breakdown by industry of gross value added, 1951–2009
Breakdown by industry of gross value added, 1951 and 2009
Expenditure on gross domestic product, 1950–2009
Type of expenditure as proportion of gross domestic expenditure (GDE) and gross domestic product (GDP)
Provincial and local economies
Provincial economies
Regional GDP and GDP growth trends, 1995–2008
Average annual economic growth, 2002–08
Gross domestic product (GDP) by province, 2007–2012
GDP per head by province, 1996–2009
Regional GDP by province and industry (actual numbers), 2008
Regional GDP by province and industry, 1998 and 2008 (proportions)
Provincial contribution to GDP and national population, 2008
Economic growth of urban areas
Economic indicators for 19 major urban areas

Inflation and interest rates
Inflation and interest rates, 1976–2009
Inflation rates, 1976–2009
Interest rates, 1976–2009
Components of CPI, 2010
CPI by province and area, 2009
Group and product inflation for all urban areas, 2009
Repurchase (repo) rate, dates of change

Saving
Personal saving, household debt, and gross domestic saving, 1960–2009
Gross domestic saving, 1960–2009

Investment
All investment
Real gross fixed capital formation (GFCF), 1960–2009
Investment (GFCF) as a proportion of GDP, 1960–2009
Annual increase/decrease in investment, 1960–2009
Investment by type of investment, 1998–2009
Investment by type of investment (proportions), 1998 and 2009
Investment by type of investor, 1960–2009
Private investment as proportion of total investment, 1960–2009
GFCF by kind of economic activity, 1960–2009
Foreign investment
Inward investment
Foreign liabilities (foreign investment in South Africa), 1956–2008
Foreign direct investment inflows, 1994–2009
Foreign liabilities (foreign investment in South Africa) by region at 31st December 2008
Foreign direct investment (FDI) in South Africa by kind of economic activity, 1998 and 2008
Outward investment
Foreign assets (South African investment in other countries), 1975–2008
Foreign assets (South African investment in other countries) by region at 31st December 2008
International comparisons
FDI flows (inward) as proportion of GFCF, selected countries, 2002–2009
FDI stock as proportion of GDP, selected countries, 2002–2009

The exchange rate
The rand/euro and rand/pound exchange rate, 1990–2009
The value of the rand in euros and pounds, 1990–2009
The rand/dollar and real effective exchange rates, 1970–2009
The value of the rand in dollars, 1970–2009
Index of real effective exchange rate (average), 1990–2009
Weighting of 13 currencies in the ‘basket’ against which the rand is measured

Trade
South Africa’s chief trading partners, 2009
South Africa’s trade with the world, 2009
South Africa’s exports by region, 2009
Imports to South Africa by area, 2009 (proportions)
Exports from South Africa by area, 2009 (proportions)
Composition of exports and imports, 1990–2009
Exports from South Africa by sector, 1990–2009 (proportions)
Imports to South Africa by sector, 1990–2009 (proportions)
Growth in export and import value, 1990–2008
Exports of goods and services as a proportion of GDP, selected countries, 1995 and 2008
Growth in real value of exports, 1960–2004
Average London gold price, 1946–2009
Brent crude oil and platinum prices, 1981–2009
Oil price, 1981–2009

PUBLIC FINANCE
Revenue and taxation
All tax revenues
Total tax revenue, 2003/04–2008/09
National revenues
Government finance as a proportion of GDP, 1976–2013
Income tax as a proportion of GDP, 1976–2013
Composition of national tax revenue, selected years, 1984/85–2010/11
Tax revenue by main source, 1994/95, 2003/04, 2008/09, and 2009/10
Tax revenue by main source as proportion of GDP, 1994/95, 2003/04, and 2008/09
Number of registered taxpayers, 2002/03–2009/10
Maximum marginal tax rates, 2002/03–2009/10
Individual taxpayers
Number of taxpayers, 2005/06–2008/09
Summary of taxable income and tax assessed, 2002/03–2007/08
Taxable income and tax assessed by income group (numbers), 2005 and 2008
Taxable income and tax assessed by income group (proportions), 2005 and 2008
Taxable income and tax assessed by age group, and sex, 2005 and 2008
Tax assessed by economic activity, 2005 and 2008
Tax assessed by source of income (proportion of total), 2005 and 2008
Taxable income and tax assessed by province, 2005 and 2008
Corporate taxpayers
Taxable income and tax assessed by sector and economic activity, 2005 and 2008
Tax assessments, 2002/03–2007/08
Provincial and local revenues
Provincial and local government tax revenue, 2003/04–2008/09
International comparisons
Top personal income tax rates, selected countries, 1980–2008
Tax revenue, 2008, and business tax, selected countries, 2009
Marginal tax rate, selected countries, 2009

Budget 2009/2010
Breakdown of consolidated national and provincial spending by function and proportion, 2010/11–2012/13
Changes in consolidated national and provincial spending by function over seven years, 2006/07–2012/13
Breakdown of consolidated national and provincial spending as a proportion of total spending, 2006/07–2012/13
Key allocations as proportions of the budget trends, 2006/07–2012/13
Major spending components, 2006/07–2012/13
Major spending components, 2006/07 and 2010/11 (proportions)
Public sector infrastructure expenditure and estimates, 2006/07–2012/13
Key indicators and forecasts, 2007–13
Division of revenue between spheres of government, 2009/10–2012/13
Deficit
Budget deficit/surplus (actual and projected), 1960/61–2012/13
Budget balance as a proportion of GDP, selected countries, 2010
Public debt
Total debt of government, 1982–2013
Foreign debt as proportion of GDP, 1982–2013
Government debt as proportion of GDP, 1982–2013

Provincial budgets
Consolidated budgets
Summary of expenditure outcomes by province, 2008/09–2009/10
Provincial own revenue collection, 2008/09–2009/10
Provincial personnel expenditure, 2009/10
Provincial education expenditure, 2009/10
Provincial capital expenditure on education, 2009/10
Provincial health expenditure, 2009/10
Provincial capital expenditure on health, 2009/10
Provincial capital expenditure on health, growth, 2008/09–2009/10

Municipal finance
Financial results for all district municipalities
Financial data for six metropolitan and two district municipalities
Financial data for the six metropolitans

FORECASTS OF KEY ECONOMIC INDICATORS, 2011–14

Business and Labour

Business-Labour2010.jpgThe Business and Labour chapter of the Survey provides the most detailed available report on business and labour trends for South Africa together with selected international comparisons that will greatly improve the quality of decisions taking by private sector investors doing business in South Africa. Data is presented for the number of business enterprises by size including SMMEs, public and private fixed capital stock, state owned enterprises, franchises, and the small business environment. An infrastructure review provides data on ports, vessels calling at ports, railways, roadways, airports and aircraft movements, energy usage and resources, and water and dams. The business environment is reviewed via a global competitiveness index and report. Data is included for the ease of doing business in South Africa, a financial development index, an economic freedom index, ease of trading information, an e-readiness ranking, a network readiness ranking, and a mining attractiveness ranking. Sectoral business trends are provided for agriculture including data on production and consumption by province, on wholesale and retail trade, on tourism, and on vehicle sales and production. Ten pages are devoted to BEE developments and trends including BEE transactions between 1994 and 2009. South Africa’s top companies and top empowerment companies are ranked. On industrial relations data is provided on trade unions and their membership, bargaining councils, wage settlements by major sectors and unions, minimum sectoral wages, strikes, lockouts, strike triggers, and employee benefits.

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BUSINESS AND LABOUR

THE BUSINESS AND LABOUR PICTURE
South African business and labour at a glance
 
BUSINESS

All sizes of business
Number of enterprises in South Africa by size, 2004 and 2007
Small, medium, and micro enterprises (SMMEs) by sector

Public and private ownership of fixed capital stock
Fixed capital stock by ownership, 2002
Fixed capital stock by ownership, 2008

State-owned enterprises
State-owned enterprises (SOEs), 2008/09
Employment by race and sex at SOEs, 2010 (numbers and proportions)

Entrepreneurship
Global entrepreneurship monitor
Entrepreneurial activity by country, 2008

Franchises
Franchise systems by business category, 2008
Growth in franchise business units, 2006 and 2008
Franchise contribution to GDP, 2006 and 2008
Capital invested in franchises for the 12 months up to 29 February 2009
Franchise costs, 2008
Total employment in franchises, 2008

Small business
Overview of small businesses, 2010
Profile of the small business owner, 2010
Geographical distribution of small business in South Africa, 2010
Small business owners by age, 2010
Starting up challenges, 2010
Small business obstacles to growth, 2010
Source of start-up business capital, 2010

Physical infrastructure
Ports
Vessels calling at South African ports, 2004–09
Roads
The South African road network
Railways
The South African rail network
Railways and roads
Road versus rail, 2007 and 2008
Airports
Aircraft movements at South Africa’s ten major airports, 2002/03–2008/09
Energy
Electricity generation by fuel type, 2006
Electricity usage by sector, 2009
South Africa’s maximum electricity capacity, 2009
South Africa’s projected electricity demand up until 2020
Water
South African dams

The business environment
Competitiveness index
Global competitiveness index rankings, 2009–10 and 2010–11
South Africa’s ranking on the Global Competitiveness Index’s 12 pillars, 2010–2011
South Africa’s ranking on the Global Competitiveness Index in detail, 2010–2011
World Competitiveness Report (global rankings 2009 and 2010)
Ease of doing business in South Africa
South Africa’s ranking for ease of doing business, 2009
Ease of doing business, 2009
Conducting business, 2009
Financial Development Index, 2009
Economic freedom of the world from the Heritage Foundation, 2010 (selected countries)
Economic freedom of the world from the Economic Freedom Network, 2007 (selected countries)
Ease of trading across borders, 2009 (selected countries)
Attractiveness of countries for mining investment, 2010
E-readiness
Global E-readiness rankings, 2009 (selected countries)
Networked Readiness Index, 2009–10 (selected countries)

The JSE Limited and global exchanges
The JSE all-share index, 1998–2009
World stock markets

Competition
The Competition Tribunal’s biggest fines

Selected business by sector
Agriculture, hunting, forestry, and fishing
Land utilisation in South Africa
Farms and farmworkers
Commercial farming units and employment on farms by province, 1993 and 2007
Casual and full-time employees by province, 2007
Production
Households involved in agricultural production and the nature of agricultural activities by province, 2009 (actual numbers)
Households involved in agricultural production and the nature of agricultural activities by province, 2009 (proportion)
Proportions of households involved in agricultural production by type of selected agricultural activity, 2009
Households involved in one or more agricultural production activity by race, 2009
Crop-producing households by type of land tenure and race, 2009
Proportion of African crop-producing households, 2009
Proportion of households of other races producing crops, 2009
Household area of crop production by province, 2009
Production and consumption
Household use of agricultural products by province, 2009
Households that sold most of their agricultural produce by province, 2009
Breakdown of households by use of agricultural produce, 2009
Wholesale and retail trade
Tourism
Tourist arrivals in South Africa by year, 2002–09
Thirty most popular global tourist destinations, 2007
New car sales, production, and exports
New car sales, production, and exports, 1995–2009

Black Economic Empowerment
The generic scorecard, 2007
JSE black directorships, 2008–10
Change in JSE black directorships, 2008–10
Black Economic Empowerment, 1995–2009
BEE transaction contribution to total transaction value, 1994–2009
Charters vs codes
The top 100 empowerment companies

South African companies
Global rankings
South African companies ranked in the Forbes Top 1 000 companies, 2009
The top 100
South Africa’s top 100 companies by turnover
Top five companies by sector
Top empowerment companies
South Africa’s top empowerment companies by sector

INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS

Trade unions
Trade unions and membership, 1994–2009
Trade union membership as a proportion of employed, and as a proportion of the economically active population, 1994–2007

Bargaining councils 1996–2009
Bargaining councils, 1996–2009

Wage settlements
Wage settlements and the inflation rate, 1998–2009
Average wage settlement by major sectors and unions, 2009
Average minimum monthly wage across major sectors, 2009
Average wage increase by province, 2009

Strikes and lockouts
Mandays lost as a result of strikes, 1979–2009
Top six strikes by duration, 2009
Mandays lost in the top six strikes, 2009
Strike triggers (proportion of mandays lost due to triggers), 1987–2009
Strike triggers, 2009

Benefits
Proportion of employees receiving benefits by number of hours worked, 2003 and 2008

Crime and Security

Crime-and-Security2010.jpgThe Crime and Security chapter of the South Africa Survey provides the most detailed and complete overview of crime and safety trends ever published on South Africa. National crime trends are published as rates and actual numbers from 1994/5 to the present. Crime trends are then broken down into property crimes, contact crimes, serious crimes, and crimes heavily dependent on police detection to show both 16 year trends and one year trends. A special section is devoted to aggravated robbery and the various types of aggravated robbery and individually assessed. Further special sections are devoted to crimes on farms, crimes against foreign nationals, witch killings, violence during strike action, youths and crime, and taxi violence. All major crime categories are then broken down over time for every province since 1994/5 and since 2008/09 for all major municipal areas in the country. Data is then provided for causes of death, manner of violent deaths, and the top ten causes of non-natural deaths in the country. Trends are given for crime reporting by victims between 1998 and 2007. Trends are also given for perceptions of crime and the changes in those perceptions over time. The chapter then provides limited international crime and corruption comparisons for South Africa. Thirteen pages are provided reviewing the performance of the South African Police Force including personnel, fatalities, escapes, deaths in custody, and crimes committed by the police. Trends are published on cases and prosecutions handled by the criminal justice system between 2003/4 and 2007/08. Data is recorded for the judiciary and the bar including the number of judges, magistrates, and members of the bar by race and sex, the remuneration of judges, and international comparisons on how our judiciary measures up to that of the rest of the world. The chapter then moves on to a detailed review of the prisons service and of prisoners in the country by race and age and sex and province and crime category and duration of sentence and sentenced/unsentenced status. International prisons trends are then provided. The Department of Defence is assessed in similar detail including a review of command structures by race and sex and an assessment of foreign deployments. Finally, the chapter concludes with a review of the size and scope of the private security industry in the country.

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CRIME AND SECURITY

THE SECURITY PICTURE
South African security at a glance

STATISTICS AND TRENDS
National crime trends
National crime figures, 1994/95 and 2009/10 (actual numbers)
National crime figures, 1994/95 and 2009/10 (rates per 100 000 people)
Sixteen-year and one-year crime trends
Contact crime: actual reported cases and rates per 100 000 of the population, 1994/95–2009/10
Contact crime rates per 100 000 of the population, 1994/95–2009/10
Property-related crime: actual reported cases and rates per 100 000 of the population, 1994/95–2009/10
Property-related crime rates per 100 000 of the population, 1994/95–2009/10
Crimes heavily dependent on police action for detection: actual reported cases and rates per 100 000 of the population, 1994/95–2009/10
Crimes heavily dependent on police action for detection: rates per 100 000 of the population, 1994/95–2009/10
Other serious crime: actual reported cases and rates per 100 000 of the population, 1994/95–2009/10
Other serious crime rates per 100 000 of the population, 1994/95–2009/10
Arson, malicious damage, and total serious crime: actual reported cases and rates per 100 000 of the population, 1994/95–2009/10
Total serious crime rate per 100 000 of the population, 1994/95–2009/10
Aggravated robbery
Breakdown of aggravated robbery, 1994/95–2009/10
Change in aggravated robbery cases, initial recorded period – 2009/10
Subcategories of aggravated robbery
Residential and business robberies as proportions of total aggravated robberies, 2002/03–2009/10
Particular categories of crime
Crime on farms
Reported cases of stock theft and rates per 100 000 of the population, 1994/95–2009/10
Stock theft rates per 100 000 of the population, 1994/95–2009/10
Farm attacks by province, 1993–2009
The statistics
Breakdown of victims by race
Farm murders by province, 1993–2009
Farm attacks and murders, 1993–2009
Number of farm attacks and murders by province, 1993–2009
Murders as a proportion of all farm attacks by province, 1993–2009
Crimes against foreign nationals
Background on foreign nationals in South Africa
Background on attacks on foreign nationals
Attitudes to foreign nationals
Proportion of SAPS members by race on whether foreigners in general (whether documented or not) caused a lot of crime in Johannesburg, 2006
Proportion of SAPS members by race on whether most of the illegal/undocumented immigrants in Johannesburg are involved in crime, 2006
South African attitudes to immigration, 1995–2006: Proportion of people who believe in the statement quoted
South African attitudes to enforcement policies, 2006
Perceived impact of migrants, 1999 and 2006
Proportion of locals who viewed foreign nationals favourably by their country of origin, 2006
Stated reasons for xenophobic attacks
Statistics on the xenophobic attacks that started in May 2008
Chronology of the May 2008 attacks
Victims of May 2008 attacks by nationality
Witch and muti killings
Muti killings: a definition
Historical overview: 1994 — the present
The Mozambican connection
Crimes against children under the age of 18
Reported crimes committed against children under the age of 18, 2002/03–2009/10
Change in reported crimes committed against children under the age of 18, 2002/03–2009/10
Initiation school killings
Attacks during strikes
1999–2006
2006–2010
Taxi violence
A brief background
Problems
Regulation
Strikes and unroadworthy vehicles
Taxi recapitalisation
Bus Rapid Transit System (BRT)
Provincial crime
Murder
Murder, 1994/95–2009/10
Change in murder rate, 1994/95–2009/10
Attempted murder
Attempted murder, 1994/95–2009/10
Change in attempted murder rate, 1994/95–2009/10
All sexual offences
All sexual offences, 1994/95–2009/10
Change in the rate of all sexual offences, 1994/95–2009/10
Robbery with aggravating circumstances
Robbery with aggravating circumstances, 1994/95– 2009/10
Change in aggravated robbery rate, 1994/95–2009/10
Assault with intent to inflict grievous bodily harm (GBH)
Assault with intent to inflict grievous bodily harm, 1994/95–2009/10
Change in rate of assault (GBH), 1994/95–2009/10
Burglary at residential premises
Burglary at residential premises, 1994/95–2009/10
Change in residential burglary rate, 1994/95–2009/10
Burglary at business premises
Burglary at business premises, 1994/95–2009/10
Change in business burglary rate, 1994/95–2009/10
Stock theft
Stock theft, 1994/95–2009/10
Change in stock theft rate, 1994/95–2009/10
Theft of motor vehicles
Theft of motor vehicles, 1994/95–2009/10
Change in motor vehicle theft rate, 1994/95–2009/10
Commercial crimes
Commercial crimes, 1994/95–2009/10
Change in commercial crime rate, 1994/95–2009/10
Drug-related crime
Drug-related crime, 1994/95–2009/10
Change in drug-related crime rate, 1994/95–2009/10
Municipal crime
Selected crime rates by municipality, 2008/09
Causes of death
Overall manner of non-natural death by cause of death, 2007
Manner of non-natural death by sex, 2007 (actual numbers)
Manner of non-natural death by sex, 2007 (proportions)
Number and proportions of non-natural deaths by age, 2007
Top ten external causes of non-natural death, 2007
Manner of violent deaths for the four main cities in South Africa, 2007
Violent and firearm violence deaths: rates per 100 000 people, 2007
Crime reporting
Proportion of respondents who reported their experience of crime to the police, 1998, 2003 and 2007
Perceptions of crime
Perceptions of changes in levels of crime over four years by race, 2007
Perceptions of changes in levels of crime over four years by province, 2007
Youth and crime
Youth offenders, perceptions of crime and violence, and personal knowledge of criminals, selected provinces, 2006
Breakdown of youth offenders by age, 2006
Breakdown of youth offenders by type of crime incarcerated for, 2006
Offender and non-offender interaction with biological parents, 2006
Disciplinary methods used by offender and non-offender parents, 2006
Victimisation of youth at schools, 2006
Youth knowledge of crimes committed by community members who make a living from crime, 2006
Proportion of respondents whose family members were involved in criminal acts by race, 2008
International crime trends
International murder rates per 100 000 people, 2003 and 2008
Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) for various countries, 2001 and 2009
Crime trends and anti-crime expenditure
Crime numbers, rates, and expenditure on protection services, 1994/95–2008/09
Crime and public spending, 1998/99–2008/09

POLICE
Personnel
Number of personnel in the SAPS by sex and race, March 2010
SAPS personnel by race, March 2010
Change in police ranks, April 2010
Number of SAPS personnel by rank and race, March 2010
SAPS expenditure on personnel by programme, March 2009
SAPS personnel by programme, 2009
Ratio of the population to police officers by province, December 2007 and January 2010
Affirmative action in the SAPS, March 2010 actual employment and 2010 employment equity targets (proportions)
SAPS personnel by sex, March 2010 actual employment and 2010 employment equity targets (proportions)
Population to police ratios, selected countries
Commando units and police reservists
Number of police reservists, 2004/05–2008/09
Personnel shortages
Employment and vacancies by programme, 2003/04 and 2008/09
Change in number of posts and vacancies by programme, 2003/04–2008/09
Employment and vacancies by skills level, 2003/04 and 2008/09
Change in number of posts and vacancies by skills level, 2003/04–2008/09
Fatalities and escapes
Number of police officers murdered, 1983/84–2009/10
Murders of police officials, 2004/05–2009/10
Number of escapes and escapees from police custody, 2001/02–2009/10
Deaths in police custody and as a result of police action
Deaths in police custody, 2003/04–2009/10
Deaths of persons as a result of police action, 2003/04 – 2009/10
Change in deaths of persons as a result of police action, 2003/04–2009/10 and 2008/09–2009/10
Crimes, corruption, and (mis)conduct in the SAPS
Lost/stolen SAPS firearms and case dockets, 2001/02– 2008/09
Lost/stolen SAPS firearms, 2001/02–2008/09
Lost/stolen case dockets, 2003/04–2008/09
Charges laid against SAPS members and proportions of total by crime category, 2007/08 and 2008/09
Charges laid against SAPS members, charges successfully prosecuted, and proportion of charges ending in onvictions, 2008/09

PROSECUTIONS AND CONVICTIONS
Criminal Justice System review
Statistics
Cases reported, prosecutions, and convictions as a proportion of all cases handled, 2003/04–2007/08
Process of referring charges to court by crime cluster, 2007/08

THE BENCH AND THE BAR
The Bench
Race and/or sex breakdowns
Judges of the superior courts by race, 2005 and 2008
Magistrates by race, 2008
Judges and magistrates by sex, 2008
Judges and magistrates by race, 2008
Remuneration
Remuneration of members of the Judiciary, 2007 and 2008
International comparisons
Experience of top judges
Appeals heard in top courts, 2005–08
Average time taken to hand out judgements, 2005–08
The Judicial Service Commission
Composition of the Judicial Service Commission (JSC)
Administration of the courts
New policy regarding administration of the courts
The Bar
Members of the Bar by race and sex, April 2008
Members of the Bar by race, April 2008
PRISONS AND CORRECTIONAL SERVICES
Personnel
Correctional Services personnel by race, 2008/09
Prisons
General statistics
Prison population by sex and race, December 2009 (actual numbers)
Prison population by sex and race, December 2009 (proportions)
Prison population by crime category, December 2009
Prison population by age, December 2009
Daily average prison population by province, 2008
Daily average prison population by sex, 1995/96–December 2009
Daily average prison population, 1995/96–December 2009
Awaiting-trial detainees
Sentenced prisoners and awaiting-trial detainees, 1995–2009
Awaiting-trial detainees longer than three months in custody, 1996–2005
Children and juveniles
Awaiting-trial detainees and those under the age of 18, 1995–2009
Prisoners under the age of 18 by crime category, December 2009
Prison overcrowding
Prison overcrowding, March 1996–October 2009
Duration of sentences
Duration of sentences, March 1995–January 2010 (numbers and proportions)
Duration of sentences, 1995 and 2010
Duration of sentences: change in proportions, 1995–2010
Duration of sentences, 1995–2009
Deaths and medical releases of prisoners
Natural and unnatural deaths of prisoners, and medical releases, 1996–2008
Prisoner escapes
Number of prisoner escapes, 1977/78–2007/08
International prison trends
International prison statistics, December 2008

DEFENCE
Personnel
Overall statistics
Department of Defence personnel by race and sex, March 2009
Employment and vacancies by programme as at March 2009
Command structures by race and rank, April 2007
Command structures by sex and rank, April 2007
Department of Defence by arm of service, May 2010
Affirmative action in the South African National Defence Force
Department of Defence employment equity targets measured against March 2009 employment
Deployment outside South Africa
Deployment of military personnel outside South Africa, 2000–08
International comparisons
Military expenditure and armed forces personnel, 2007

PRIVATE SECURITY
Change in the number of security businesses, security officers, and sworn SAPS officials, 1997–2009
Number of active security officers and sworn police officials, 1997–2009
Registered security businesses by sector, 2005–07

Demographics

The Demographics chapter of the South Africa Survey provides 75 pages of data on how many South Africans there are, how old they are, where they are, and what the major fertility/family/language/religious/human development, and migration trends for the population are.

Demographics2010.jpgKey population trends and projections are provided from 1911 to 2040. Data is broken down by race, gender, sex, age, and local authority and various combinations of the above. Population density and geographical representation and urbanisation trends are given. Fertility, birth, and infant/under five/adult mortality trends are given. Data is provided on the impact of HIV on the South African population to 2040. Trends within households, including size and composition, are given. More than ten pages are devoted to trends on the South African family, including the numbers of child-headed households/orphans/double orphans/presence of fathers in households/single parents as well as a number of other family-related indicators. Data is given on major religious affiliations, and changes in such affiliation since 1980. Human development index trends are tracked since 1980 together with international comparisons. Finally, the chapter provides internal migration data to 2011 as well as historical trends since 1940. International immigration comparisons since 1940 are also included.

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DEMOGRAPHICS

DEMOGRAPHICS AT A GLANCE
Overview of key population estimates, 1985-2010

POPULATION PROFILE
Breakdown by race, age, and year, 1911–2040
Population by year and race, 1911–2021
Population by year and race, 1911 and 2009
Projected population by size, 2010–2040
Projected population by age (proportions), 2010-2040
Breakdown by race and year, 1992-2012
Population by race and year, 1992–2012
Breakdown by age, race, and sex, 2010
Population by age, race, and sex, 2010
Growth rate and forecasts by sex and race, 2001–40
Estimated annual population growth rates by sex, 2001–10
Annual population growth rate, 2010–2040
Projected population by race, 2001 and 2021
Projected population by race (proportions), 2010–2040
Projected population by race, year by year, 2009–2012
Projected relative population by sex, 2010–2040
Estimated annual population growth rates by race and sex, 2001–05
Rate of natural population increase, selected countries, 1990–1995 and 2005–2010
Breakdown by race and sex
Male/female population distribution by race, 2010
Breakdown by race and age
Estimated age profile by race, 2010 (actual numbers)
Estimated age profile by race, 2010 (proportions)
Breakdown by province
Population by province, 2010 mid–year estimates
Population and growth by province, 2001 and 2009
Estimated annual population growth rates by province, 2001–21
Breakdown by race and province
Population by race and province (actual numbers), 2001 and 2009
Projected population by race and province, 2009–12 (actual numbers)
Projected population by race and province, 2009–12 (proportions)
Projected population by race and province, change in number and percentage change, 2009–12
Population density
Population density by province, 2010
Population density by province, 2010
Selected international comparisons of population density, 2000 and 2008
Breakdown by municipal area
Geography and demographics of district and metropolitan municipalities, 2007
Breakdown of district and metropolitan municipalities by race, sex, and age, 2007
Geographical distribution and urbanisation
Proportions of people living in urban areas by province and race, 1998, 2003, and 2008
Area size and population density of 19 major cities, 2009
Population of 19 major cities by race, 1999–2009
Population of 19 major cities by race, change in number and percentage change, 1999–2009
Urban and rural populations as a proportion of total population, selected countries, 1990 and 2010
Demographic indicators
Fertility rate
Fertility rate, 2001–2010
Fertility rate by province, 2001–2006 and 2006–2011
Projected fertility rate, 2010-2040
Adolescent fertility rate, selected countries, 2008
Total fertility rate (births per woman), selected countries, 1990–1995 and 2005–2010
Births
Births rate, 2001–2010
Recorded live births by sex, 1991–2008
Birth forecasts by numbers and rate, 2009–2012
Births minus deaths, 1985-2021
Births minus deaths, 1985–2021
Mortality
Death rate, 2001–2010
Number of registered deaths, 1997–2007
Number of deaths by age and sex, 2007
Median ages at death by sex and year of death, 1997–2007
Deaths by province, 2009
Projected mortality rate, 2010–2040
Infant mortality rate, 2001–2010
Infant and under five mortality rate, selected countries, 1990 and 2008
Infant mortality rate, selected countries, 1990 and 2007
Under-five mortality rate, selected countries, 1990 and 2007
Adult mortality rates by sex, selected countries, 2005–2007
Life expectancy
Life expectancy at birth by sex, 2001–2010
Life expectancy by province and sex, 2001–2006 and 2006–2011
Projected life expectancy at birth by province and race, 2002, 2009, and 2012
Projected life expectancy at birth by sex, 2010-2040
Life expectancy at birth, selected countries, 1990 and 2007
Healthy life expectancy at birth, selected countries, 2007
Survival to age 65 by sex (proportions), selected countries, 2008
Impact of HIV/AIDS
Estimated number and proportion of people HIV-positive, 2001–10
Estimated effects of HIV/AIDS on total population, 2000–10
Estimated AIDS deaths by province, 2000–10
Estimated non-AIDS deaths by province, 2000–10
Estimated effects of HIV/AIDS on provincial populations, 2000–10
Projected impact of HIV/AIDS on the size of the South African population, 2000–2040
South African households
Household numbers and proportions by province, 2009
Household numbers by race, 2001–2021
Household numbers and proportions by district metropolitan municipalities, 2007
Households by size and composition, 2008
South African families
Number and proportion of children by age, 2002–2007
Number and proportion of child-headed households by province, 2002–2007
Number of child-headed households receiving services by province (April 2007–March 2008)
Number and proportion of double orphans by province 2002–2007
Number and proportion of double orphans by age, 2002–2007
Number of orphans, selected countries, 2007
Projections of AIDS orphans in South Africa, 2015
Proportion of children with unknown whereabouts, 2002–2008
Proportion of children living with parents by race and sex, 2001
Proportion of urban parents that are single by race, 2007
Number and proportion of urban single parents by age, 2007
Urban single parents by race and employment status, 2007
Urban single parents by race and sex, 2007
Presence of fathers of children (aged 15 years and younger), 1993–2002
Presence of fathers of children (aged 15 years and younger) by race, 1993–2002
Presence of fathers of African children (aged 15 and younger), 1993–2002
Percentage of women who had given birth by age and number of children, 2001
Percentage of women who had given birth by age, race, and marital status, 2001
Proportion of teenage pregnancies by province, 2003
Percentage distribution of South African households by household type, 1996–2006
Dependency ratio, selected countries
Religion
Major religious affiliations in South Africa, 2001 (numbers and proportions)
Changes in religious affiliation, 1980–2001
Language
Breakdown of home languages, 2001
Human Development Index
Human development index, 1980–2007
South African human development index, 1980–2007
Human development index, selected countries, 1980–2007
Change in human development index rankings, selected countries, 2000-2007
Human development index of various countries, 2007

MIGRATION
Estimated internal migration by province, 2006–11
International migration, 1940–2004
Annual rate of immigration growth, selected countries, 1960–2005

Employment & Incomes

Employment2010.jpgThe Employment and Incomes chapter is a 101-page report of who in South Africa earns how much through doing what and where they do it. Labour market trends are broken down over a decade as well as by race, sex, age, and location. A ten-year review of the working environment by sector, industry, race, and sex is provided. Employment trends by the state including in state-owned enterprises are given. A review of informal sector work trends over the past six years is provided. On unemployment, this report provides trends over six years for unemployment numbers on both the broad and narrow definitions, age groups, gender categories, length of time unemployed, the relationship between skills and unemployment, and even unemployment by marital status. International unemployment comparisons are drawn. Six pages are devoted to the underutilisation of labour in South Africa, including data on the non-market activities of discouraged workers. Income trends are assessed for both individuals and households, by category of income, sex, education, source of income, and race. Both ten and fifty-year trends for disposable income are provided. Six pages are devoted to expenditure and consumption patterns as well as credit patterns. Living Standard Measures are provided for 2001-2009. The report concludes with national, provincial, and local authority poverty trends measured on both the $1/day and $2/day indicators.

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EMPLOYMENT AND INCOMES
THE EMPLOYMENT AND INCOMES PICTURE
South African employment and incomes at a glance

THE OVERALL EMPLOYMENT PICTURE
Labour market trends
Labour market trends, 2001 and 2010
Labour market trends, 2009–10
Labour market participation and absorption rates
Labour market participation rate, 2001–10
Labour market participation rate by race and sex, 2010
Labour force participation and unemployment rates, selected countries, 1990 and 2007
Labour force absorption rate, 2001–10
Economically active population
Definition
Economically active population by race, 2001–10
Economically active population by race and sex, 2010

EMPLOYMENT
Overall employment by economic sector and industry, 2001, 2009, and 2010
Overall employment by economic sector and industry, 2001, 2009, and 2010
Change in overall employment by economic sector and industry, 2001–10 and 2009–10
Employment by industry, sex, and race
Employment by industry and sex, 2001 and 2010
Employment by industry, sex, and race, 2009–10
Employment by occupation
Employment by occupation, 2001 and 2010
Proportion of employment by occupation, 2001 and 2010
Employment by occupation, race, and sex, 2010 (actual numbers)
Employment by occupation, race, and sex, 2010 (proportions)
Employment equity employment by occupation, race, and sex, 2009 (proportions)
Employment equity top management employment by race, sex, and industry, 2009
Employment in management by race and sex, 2000–08
Breakdown of top management by race and sex, 2008
Proportion of black employees in the workforce at different levels of seniority, 1994–2009
Employment in the public sector
The public service
State employees
Total number of state employees, 1999–2008
State employees as a proportion of total employment, 1999–2010
Number of state employees by sex, 2010
Number of state employees by race, 2010
Breakdown of state employees by race and sex, 2010
Number of employees in national departments and agencies by race, 2010
State-owned enterprises
Number and proportion of employees in state-owned enterprises by race and sex, 2010
Government employees
Number of government employees by level of government, 2010
Characteristics of the employed
Employment by age group, 2010
Employment by highest level of education, 2010
Segments of the working population
Non-agricultural, non-domestic formal sector
Non-agricultural, non-domestic, formal private and public sector employment, 2008 and 2010
Formal sector (non-agricultural) employment by industry, 2004–10
Agriculture
Employment in agriculture by type of employment, 2001–10
Number of paid workers in the formal agricultural sector by province, 2007
Expanded Public Works Programme
Number and average length of work opportunities created by the EPWP, 2004/05–2010/11
Informal sector
Informal sector employment (non-agricultural) by industry, 2004–10
Productivity
Change in total employment, real remuneration per worker, and labour productivity in the non-agricultural, nondomestic sector, 1994–2009

UNEMPLOYMENT
Statistics
Unemployment numbers by race, 1994–2010
Number of unemployed (official definition), 1994–2010
Number of unemployed (wide definition), 1994–2010
Unemployment rate by race, 1994–2010 (official and wide definition)
Unemployment rate (official definition), 1994–2010
Unemployment rate (wide definition), 1994–2010

EMPLOYMENT AND INCOMES ONLINE
South African Institute of Race Relations South Africa Survey 2009/2010

EMPLOYMENT AND INCOMES ONLINE
South African Institute of Race Relations South Africa Survey 2009/2010
Unemployment by industry and occupation, 2010
Characteristics of the unemployed
Categories of unemployed people, 2010
Unemployment by age group, 2010
Unemployment rate by age group, 2010
Unemployment numbers and rate by age, race, and sex, 2010
Unemployment by highest level of education, 2010
Unemployment by length of time, 2010
Unemployment by current marital status, 2010
International comparisons
Unemployment rates, selected countries, 2010

UNDERUTILISATION AND NON-PARTICIPATION OF LABOUR
Not economically active
Persons not economically active, 2010
Underutilisation
Underutilisation of labour, 2010
Underemployment
Time-related underemployment by industry, 2010
Time-related underemployment by occupation, 2010
Discouraged workseekers
Total number of discouraged workseekers, 1994–2007 (old definition)
Defining the discouraged (new definition)
Total number of discouraged workseekers, 2001–2010 (new definition)
Discouraged workseekers by race, 2001–10 (new definition)
Discouraged workseekers by race and sex, 2009–10 (new definition)
Non-market activities
Non-market activities, 2009–10

PROVINCIAL LABOUR MARKET DATA
Overall data
Economically active population by province, 2010
Trends
Labour market trends by province, 2009–10
Employment by industry
Employment by industry and province, 2009–10
Agriculture
Number of paid workers in formal agricultural sector by province, 2007
Formal and informal sectors
Formal and informal sector employment by province, 2003 and 2008
Unemployment
Unemployment numbers by province, 2005, 2009, and 2010
Unemployment rate by province, 2005, 2009, and 2010
Unemployment rate by province, 2005, 2009, and 2010 (official definition)
Unemployment rate by province, 2005, 2009, and 2010 (wide definition)

MUNICIPAL LABOUR MARKET DATA
Labour market status
Labour market status by race, 2007

INCOME AND EXPENDITURE
Wage trends
Average monthly earnings in formal non-agricultural industries, 2009–10 (current prices)
Average monthly earnings in formal non-agricultural industries, 2009–10 (constant prices)
Average monthly earnings in formal non-agricultural employment in the public and private sectors, 2000–10
Number of paid employees in agriculture and average monthly earnings by province, 2007
Incomes
Income levels and categories
Households
Number of households by income category and province, 2009
Proportion of households by income category and province, 2009
Individuals
Adults by race, income group, and sex, 2009 (numbers)
Adults by race and income group, 2009 (numbers)
Adults by race, income group, and sex, 2009 (proportions)
Adults by income group and province, 2009 (numbers)
Adults by income group and province, 2009 (proportions)
Adults by income group and highest level of education, 2009 (numbers)
Adults by income group and highest level of education, 2009 (proportions)
Number and proportion of affluent individuals by race, age, and province, 2009
Income sources
Households’ sources of income by race, 2009
Number and proportion of small-scale non-metro households with access to land by main source of income, 2006
Income inequality
Gini co-efficient by race and location, 1993, 2000, and 2008

EMPLOYMENT AND INCOMES ONLINE 6
South African Institute of Race Relations South Africa Survey 2009/2010
EMPLOYMENT AND INCOMES ONLINE 7
South African Institute of Race Relations South Africa Survey 2009/2010
Gini co-efficient by race, 1996–2009
Gini co-efficient by province and race, 2009
Income trends
Very long-term income trends
Annual per capita personal income by race, 1917–2008
Annual per capita personal income by race as a proportion of white levels, 1917–2008
Ratio of white per capita personal income to that of other races, 1917–2008
Long-term income trends
Real personal disposable income per head by race, 1960 and 2007
Personal disposable income share by race, 1960 and 2007
Real personal disposable income per head by race, 1960–2007
Personal disposable income by race, 1960 and 2007
African and white annual per capita disposable income, 1960, 1996, and 2007
Medium-term income trends
Aggregate income
Annual total disposable income by race, 1996–2009
Annual total disposable income by race, 1999 and 2009
Household income
Annual average household income by race, 1996–2008
Annual average household income by race, 1998 and 2008
Annual average household income by province, 1996–2008
Personal income
Personal annual income per head by province, 1996–2009
Annual per capita income by race, 1996–2009
Annual per capita income by race, 1999 and 2009
Expenditure
Household expenditure categories by race, 2008–09
Household expenditure categories by race and sex, 2009
Household expenditure categories by sex, 2009
Expenditure by race and main expenditure group (proportions), 2008
Consumption
Distribution of final household consumption by main expenditure group, 1949–2009
Final household consumption expenditure, 2009
Final consumption expenditure by households, 1959 and 2009
Proportion of final consumption expenditure by households, 2009
Average annual household consumption expenditure by province, 2005/06
Credit
Levels of indebtedness by province, 2008
Sources of credit, 2008
Living Standards Measures
Living standards measures by age, race, income, and province, 2009
LSMs, change over time, 2001–09

POVERTY
National trends
Poverty measures by race and sex, 1993, 2000, and 2008
Number and proportion of people living on less than $1 a day, 1996–2009
Number of people living on less than $1 a day, 1996–2009
Number and proportion of people living on less than $2 a day, 1996–2009
Number of people living on less than $2 a day, 1996–2009
Number of people living in relative poverty by race, 1996–2009
Proportion of people living in relative poverty by race, 1996–2009
Proportion of people living in relative poverty, 1999 and 2009
Provincial trends
Number of people living on less than $1 a day by province, 1996–2009
Proportion of people living on less than $1 a day by province, 1996–2009
Number of people living on less than $2 a day by province, 1996–2009
Proportion of people living on less than $2 per day by province, 1996–2009
Poverty levels: people living in poverty by province and race, 2009 (actual numbers)
Poverty levels: people living in poverty by province and race, 2009 (proportions)
Municipal poverty
Poverty rate by district municipality, 2007